Immunology

Potential long-term treatment for asthma found

A possible way to tackle one of the underlying causes of asthma has been developed by researchers from Aston University and Imperial College London. In tests in mice, the researchers were able to virtually eliminate asthmatic ...

Surgery

New scoring system to fix sex disparity in liver transplants

Every year, some 13,000 people are added to the liver transplant waiting list in the United States, but fewer than 9,000 receive a liver. Placement on the list largely depends on a number called the MELD (model for end-stage ...

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Muscle

Muscle (from Latin musculus, diminutive of mus "mouse") is the contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. Muscle cells contain contractile filaments that move past each other and change the size of the cell. They are classified as skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscles. Their function is to produce force and cause motion. Muscles can cause either locomotion of the organism itself or movement of internal organs. Cardiac and smooth muscle contraction occurs without conscious thought and is necessary for survival. Examples are the contraction of the heart and peristalsis which pushes food through the digestive system. Voluntary contraction of the skeletal muscles is used to move the body and can be finely controlled. Examples are movements of the eye, or gross movements like the quadriceps muscle of the thigh. There are two broad types of voluntary muscle fibers: slow twitch and fast twitch. Slow twitch fibers contract for long periods of time but with little force while fast twitch fibers contract quickly and powerfully but fatigue very rapidly.

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