Neuroscience

Thicker nerve fibers enable faster reactions in mice

In order for organisms to react swiftly to stimuli in their environment, they need rapid and precise transmission of nerve impulses along neural extensions known as axons. Whereas some invertebrates have developed very thick ...

Medical research

Cashew shell compound appears to mend damaged nerves

In laboratory experiments, a chemical compound found in the shell of the cashew nut promotes the repair of myelin, a team from Vanderbilt University Medical Center reports today in the Proceedings of the National Academy ...

Neuroscience

Gene yields insights into the causes of neurodegeneration

Across the globe, approximately 50 million people are living with dementia. The two most common forms are Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), which develop when neurons in specific parts of the ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Not all multiple-sclerosis-like diseases are alike

An antibody appears to make a big difference between multiple sclerosis and other disorders affecting the protective myelin sheath around nerve fibers, report Tohoku University scientists and colleagues in the journal Brain. ...

Medical research

New therapeutic options for multiple sclerosis in sight

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is known as "the disease with a thousand faces" because symptoms and progression can vary dramatically from patient to patient. But every MS patient has one thing in common: Cells of their body's own ...

page 1 from 19

Myelin

Myelin is a dielectric (electrically insulating) material that forms a layer, the myelin sheath, usually around only the axon of a neuron. It is essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system. Myelin is an outgrowth of a type of glial cell. The production of the myelin sheath is called myelination. In humans, the production of myelin begins in the fourteenth week of fetal development, although little myelin exists in the brain at the time of birth. During infancy, myelination occurs quickly and continues through the adolescent stages of life.

Schwann cells supply the myelin for peripheral neurons, whereas oligodendrocytes, specifically of the interfascicular type, myelinate the axons of the central nervous system. Myelin is considered a defining characteristic of the (gnathostome) vertebrates, but myelin-like sheaths have also arisen by parallel evolution in some invertebrates, although they are quite different from vertebrate myelin at the molecular level. Myelin was discovered in 1854 by Rudolf Virchow.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA