Addiction

Opioid dependence found to permanently change brains of rats

Approximately one-quarter of patients who are prescribed opioids for chronic pain misuse them, with five to 10 percent developing an opioid use disorder or addiction. In a new study, published Jan. 14, 2020 in PNAS, researchers ...

Medications

Higher opioid doses fail to lessen pain

Increasing chronic pain patients' opioid prescription doses does not seem to improve pain, according to a Veterans Affairs study. Researchers from the Central Arkansas and Minneapolis VA health care systems and three universities ...

Addiction

Tackling the opioid crisis with a warmer touch

In the event of an opioid overdose, quick action from first responders can mean the difference between life and death. But oftentimes, survivors need much more than that first response to recover.

Obstetrics & gynaecology

Telemedicine helps pregnant women tackle taboo issue

Sarah, a military veteran living on the coast of South Carolina, knew she had a problem. The opioids prescribed for her pain were becoming a headache of their own.

page 1 from 3

Opioid

An opioid is a psychoactive chemical that works by binding to opioid receptors, which are found principally in the central and peripheral nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. The receptors in these organ systems mediate both the beneficial effects and the side effects of opioids.

Opioids are among the world's oldest known drugs; the use of the opium poppy for its therapeutic benefits predates recorded history. The analgesic (painkiller) effects of opioids are due to decreased perception of pain, decreased reaction to pain as well as increased pain tolerance. The side effects of opioids include sedation, respiratory depression, constipation, and a strong sense of euphoria. Opioids can cause cough suppression, which can be both an indication for opioid administration or an unintended side effect. Opioid dependence can develop with ongoing administration, leading to a withdrawal syndrome with abrupt discontinuation. Opioids are well known for their ability to produce a feeling of euphoria, motivating some to recreationally use opioids.

Although the term opiate is often used as a synonym for opioid, the term opiate is properly limited to the natural alkaloids found in the resin of the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). In some definitions, the semi-synthetic substances that are directly derived from the opium poppy are considered to be opiates as well, while in other classification systems these substances are simply referred to as semi-synthetic opioids.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA