Neuroscience

Untangling the where and when of walking in the brain

Imagine walking on two treadmills at the gym, one side moving faster than the other. Would you be able to adapt to this change and come up with a new way of walking, or would you stagger and stumble as your legs falter about, ...

Medical research

There's more to oxytocin, the so-called love hormone

A new study published in Nature Communications reveals that the role of the hormone oxytocin may extend beyond childbirth and social behaviour. By analysing gene expression maps and brain activation patterns, researchers ...

Cancer

Gene involved in colorectal cancer also causes breast cancer

Rare mutations in the NTHL1 gene, previously associated with colorectal cancer, also cause breast cancer and other types of cancer. Researchers from Radboud university medical center, Leiden University Medical Center and ...

Ophthalmology

Microscopic eye movements affect how we see contrast

It is often difficult for a driver to see a person walking on the side of the road at night—especially if the person is wearing dark colors. One of the factors causing this difficulty is a decrease in contrast, making it ...

Psychology & Psychiatry

Want to be happier? Try getting to know yourself

The unexamined life is not worth living, wrote the Greek philosopher Socrates. He was reflecting on the expression "Know Thyself" – an aphorism inscribed on the temple of Apollo at Delphi and one of the ultimate achievements ...

page 1 from 23

Pattern

A pattern, from the French patron, is a type of theme of recurring events or objects, sometimes referred to as elements of a set of objects.

These elements repeat in a predictable manner. It can be a template or model which can be used to generate things or parts of a thing, especially if the things that are created have enough in common for the underlying pattern to be inferred, in which case the things are said to exhibit the unique pattern.

The most basic patterns, called Tessellations, are based on repetition and periodicity. A single template, tile, or cell, is combined with duplicates without change or modification. For example, simple harmonic oscillators produce repeated patterns of movement.

Other patterns, such as Penrose tiling and Pongal or Kolam patterns from India, use symmetry which is a form of finite repetition, instead of translation which can repeat to infinity. Fractal patterns also use magnification or scaling giving an effect known as self-similarity or scale invariance. Some plants, like Ferns, even generate a pattern using an affine transformation which combines translation, scaling, rotation and reflection.

Pattern matching is the act of checking for the presence of the constituents of a pattern, whereas the detecting for underlying patterns is referred to as pattern recognition. The question of how a pattern emerges is accomplished through the work of the scientific field of pattern formation.

Pattern recognition is more complex when templates are used to generate variants. For example, in English, sentences often follow the "N-VP" (noun - verb phrase) pattern, but some knowledge of the English language is required to detect the pattern. Computer science, ethology, and psychology are fields which study patterns.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA