Neuroscience

Mapping the relay networks of our brain

A team of scientists led by Karl Farrow at NeuroElectronics Research Flanders (NERF, empowered by imec, KU Leuven and VIB) is unraveling how our brain processes visual information. They identified specific roles for distinct ...

Medical research

Zebrafish aid effort to regenerate damaged retinas

The tiny zebrafish may hold the secret to regenerating damaged retinas in humans, Vanderbilt University researchers reported last week in the journal Cell Reports.

Medical research

The new gene therapy that could help save sight

A new gene therapy being developed at The Australian National University (ANU) will help people at risk of dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and could potentially save millions of people from going blind.

Neuroscience

Economic, fast and efficient cell-type targeting

It is a remarkable proof for the concept of IOB: working closely hand in hand, our molecular and clinical researchers have developed a library of 230 adeno associated viral vectors (AAVs), each with a different synthetic ...

Neuroscience

Retina restructures itself after cell death

Following gene therapy, the retina can restructure itself and regain normal light responses, according to research in mice published in JNeurosci. These results emphasize the plasticity of the retina and support ongoing development ...

Medical research

Portable device can be used to diagnose eye disease remotely

A portable device connected to a smartphone makes precise images of the retina to detect back-of-the-eye (fundus) disease at a far lower cost than conventional methods. Created by Phelcom Technologies, a startup based at ...

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Retina

The vertebrate retina is a light sensitive tissue lining the inner surface of the eye. The optics of the eye create an image of the visual world on the retina, which serves much the same function as the film in a camera. Light striking the retina initiates a cascade of chemical and electrical events that ultimately trigger nerve impulses. These are sent to various visual centers of the brain through the fibers of the optic nerve.

In vertebrate embryonic development, the retina and the optic nerve originate as outgrowths of the developing brain, so the retina is considered part of the central nervous system (CNS).. It is the only part of the CNS that can be imaged non-invasively in the living organism.

The retina is a complex, layered structure with several layers of neurons interconnected by synapses. The only neurons that are directly sensitive to light are the photoreceptor cells. These are mainly of two types: the rods and cones. Rods function mainly in dim light and provide black-and-white vision, while cones support daytime vision and the perception of colour. A third, much rarer type of photoreceptor, the photosensitive ganglion cell, is important for reflexive responses to bright daylight.

Neural signals from the rods and cones undergo complex processing by other neurons of the retina. The output takes the form of action potentials in retinal ganglion cells whose axons form the optic nerve. Several important features of visual perception can be traced to the retinal encoding and processing of light.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA