Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Remembering humanity's triumph over a virus, 40 years on

As scientists scramble for a COVID-19 cure and vaccine, the world on Friday marked a pertinent anniversary: humanity's only true triumph over an infectious disease with its eradication of smallpox four decades ago.

Vaccination

Vaccines: How we make them, how they work, why we need them

Between the coughing, sneezing, stuffy noses and watery eyes, it's clear that we're in the midst of cold and flu season, which serves as an annual reminder of the critical role vaccines play in the fight against the spread ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

FDA approves vaccine for prevention of smallpox, monkeypox

Jynneos Smallpox and Monkeypox Vaccine, Live, Non-Replicating, was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for prevention of smallpox and monkeypox disease in adults 18 years or older who are considered at high ...

Pediatrics

Is maternal vaccination safe during breastfeeding?

In light of the continuing anti-vaccination movement, a provocative new article provides a comprehensive overview of the potential risks of vaccinating breastfeeding women. The article, which determined that only smallpox ...

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Smallpox

Smallpox is an infectious disease unique to humans, caused by either of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor. The disease is also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera, which is a derivative of the Latin varius, meaning spotted, or varus, meaning "pimple". The term "smallpox" was first used in Europe in the 15th century to distinguish variola from the "great pox" (syphilis).

Smallpox localizes in small blood vessels of the skin and in the mouth and throat. In the skin, this results in a characteristic maculopapular rash, and later, raised fluid-filled blisters. V. major produces a more serious disease and has an overall mortality rate of 30–35%. V. minor causes a milder form of disease (also known as alastrim, cottonpox, milkpox, whitepox, and Cuban itch) which kills about 1% of its victims. Long-term complications of V. major infection include characteristic scars, commonly on the face, which occur in 65–85% of survivors. Blindness resulting from corneal ulceration and scarring, and limb deformities due to arthritis and osteomyelitis are less common complications, seen in about 2–5% of cases.

Smallpox is believed to have emerged in human populations about 10,000 BC. The disease killed an estimated 400,000 Europeans each year during the 18th century (including five monarchs), and was responsible for a third of all blindness. Of all those infected, 20–60%—and over 80% of infected children—died from the disease.

During the 20th century, it is estimated that smallpox was responsible for 300–500 million deaths. In the early 1950s an estimated 50 million cases of smallpox occurred in the world each year. As recently as 1967, the World Health Organization estimated that 15 million people contracted the disease and that two million died in that year. After successful vaccination campaigns throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, the WHO certified the eradication of smallpox in December 1979. To this day, smallpox is the only human infectious disease to have been completely eradicated.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA