Neuroscience

To boldly go or anxiously hang back?

UC San Francisco research has identified a particular group of nerve cells in the brain that play an important role in anxiety's influence over behavior. The researchers have found that turning off signaling from this small ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Fecal transplants may be best answer to antibiotic-resistant bacteria

Transplanting human donor fecal microbiota into the colon of a patient infected with Clostridiodes difficile (C. diff) may be the best treatment for those not helped by C. diff targeted antibiotics, according to an article ...

Cancer

Scientists alter 3-D genome using 'small molecules'

Researchers have discovered that the spatial organization of the genome can be altered using small molecule compounds which are considered as promising anti-cancer drugs. This work opens up the prospect of developing a new ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Space-enabled mobile laboratory ready for medical emergencies

A laboratory that enables first responders to combat biological hazards and infectious diseases rapidly and safely has demonstrated its strengths during a simulated biological incident conducted in Belgium.

Cancer

Stargazing technology used to spot cancer

Cancers are often missed on traditional 2-D X-rays so are sometimes only discovered later when the disease is more advanced and difficult to treat.

Psychology & Psychiatry

Associating colours with vowels? Almost everyone does

Does [a:] as in baa sound more green or more red? And is [i:] as in beet light or dark in colour? Even though we perceive speech and colour are perceived with different sensory organs, nearly everyone has an idea about what ...

Autism spectrum disorders

People with autism have an altered sense of self

New research has indicated that people with autism have an altered sense of self, which may explain some of the differences shown in social functioning.

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Space

Space is the boundless, three-dimensional extent in which objects and events occur and have relative position and direction. Physical space is often conceived in three linear dimensions, although modern physicists usually consider it, with time, to be part of the boundless four-dimensional continuum known as spacetime. In mathematics spaces with different numbers of dimensions and with different underlying structures can be examined. The concept of space is considered to be of fundamental importance to an understanding of the universe although disagreement continues between philosophers over whether it is itself an entity, a relationship between entities, or part of a conceptual framework.

Many of the philosophical questions arose in the 17th century, during the early development of classical mechanics. In Isaac Newton's view, space was absolute - in the sense that it existed permanently and independently of whether there were any matter in the space. Other natural philosophers, notably Gottfried Leibniz, thought instead that space was a collection of relations between objects, given by their distance and direction from one another. In the 18th century, Immanuel Kant described space and time as elements of a systematic framework which humans use to structure their experience.

In the 19th and 20th centuries mathematicians began to examine non-Euclidean geometries, in which space can be said to be curved, rather than flat. According to Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity, space around gravitational fields deviates from Euclidean space. Experimental tests of general relativity have confirmed that non-Euclidean space provides a better model for explaining the existing laws of mechanics and optics.

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