Stem cells derived from different types of fat express different cell-surface markers

Stem cells derived from different types of fat express different cell-surface markers
Stem cells derived from distinct sources of fat display different cell-surface markers — with implications for their roles in metabolism and disease. Credit: Ugreen/iStock/Thinkstock

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have a natural ability to differentiate into various cell types, such as muscle, cartilage and bone. They can be classified according to their source and include adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs). ASCs, in particular, hold tremendous potential for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine because of their relatively high abundance and ease of isolation.

Shigeki Sugii at the A*STAR Singapore Bioimaging Consortium and co-workers have now isolated ASCs from two different sources of fat: subcutaneous fat found underneath the skin and from inside the abdominal cavity. The team showed that ASCs derived from subcutaneous fat express cell-surface markers that differ from those derived from visceral fat. The finding has implications for determining the origins of ASCs and the roles of their different subtypes in metabolism-related conditions, such as obesity, and diseases such as soft tissue tumors.

Stem cells, like all other cells, express molecules at their surface that are recognized by the body's immune system. Like a fingerprint, the expression profile of these cell-surface markers is unique to each stem cell type. Scientists already know that MSCs express the cell-surface markers CD73, CD90 and CD105 but not CD14, CD19, CD34 and CD45. Recent studies have also shown that while ASCs express CD36 but not CD106, the opposite is true for BMSCs. Thus, MSCs derived from different tissues express different cell-surface markers, providing a valuable tool for determining the origins of MSCs.

Sugii and co-workers therefore proposed that ASCs derived from different types of fat may also express different cell-surface markers. To investigate this, they extracted subcutaneous and visceral fat from 12 obese patients, as well as normal and obese mice. After isolating ASCs from the fat, the team analyzed the expression profiles of over 240 cell surface markers for each sample. Their analysis revealed a high level of CD10 expression in ASCs derived from subcutaneous fat compared to ASCs derived from visceral fat. In addition, they detected a high level of CD200 expression in ASCs derived from visceral fat compared to those derived from subcutaneous fat.

The researchers also discovered that while CD10-rich ASCs from differentiate better than their CD10-deficient counterparts, CD200-deficient ASCs from visceral fat differentiate better than their CD200-rich counterparts.

"Our results suggest that CD10 and CD200 are markers of high and low adipogenic capacities," says Sugii. "Therefore CD10 and CD200 are biomarkers as well as indicators of adipogenic potentials for use in high-throughput drug-screening systems."

More information: Ong, W. K., Tan, C. S., Chan, K. L., Goesantoso, G. G., Chan, X. H. D. et al. "Identification of specific cell-surface markers of adipose-derived stem cells from subcutaneous and visceral fat depots." Stem Cell Reports 2, 172–179 (2014). dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2014.01.002

add to favorites email to friend print save as pdf

Related Stories

Surgeries shorter in outpatient surgery centers

May 23, 2014

(HealthDay)—Outpatient surgeries take less time when performed in ambulatory surgery centers (ASCs) compared to hospitals, according to research published in the May issue of Health Affairs.

A stem cell target for expanding waistlines?

Jun 16, 2011

Researchers may have found the key to developing a method to rid the body of stem cells responsible for driving fat expansion. According to a report in the June 16 Cell Stem Cell, a Cell Press publication, they've landed ...

Recommended for you

Growing a blood vessel in a week

20 hours ago

The technology for creating new tissues from stem cells has taken a giant leap forward. Three tablespoons of blood are all that is needed to grow a brand new blood vessel in just seven days. This is shown ...

Testing time for stem cells

23 hours ago

DefiniGEN is one of the first commercial opportunities to arise from Cambridge's expertise in stem cell research. Here, we look at some of the fundamental research that enables it to supply liver and pancreatic ...

Team finds key signaling pathway in cause of preeclampsia

Oct 23, 2014

A team of researchers led by a Wayne State University School of Medicine associate professor of obstetrics and gynecology has published findings that provide novel insight into the cause of preeclampsia, the leading cause ...

Rapid test to diagnose severe sepsis

Oct 23, 2014

A new test, developed by University of British Columbia researchers, could help physicians predict within an hour if a patient will develop severe sepsis so they can begin treatment immediately.

User comments