News tagged with enzyme

Related topics: protein , cells , bacteria , chemical reactions , cancer

New therapy against rare gene defects

On 15th April is the 1st International Pompe Disease Day, a campaign to raise awareness of this rare but severe gene defect. Pompe Disease is only one of more than 40 metabolic disorders that mainly affect children under ...

Apr 15, 2014
popularity 5 / 5 (1) | comments 0

NOX4 implicated in fibrosis

Genkyotex, a developer of selective NOX enzyme inhibitors, announced today the publication of data showing that GKT137831, a first in class NOX1 and 4 inhibitor, was able to reverse lung fibrosis associated with aging in ...

Apr 11, 2014
popularity not rated yet | comments 0

Study links coffee to lower liver cancer risk

(HealthDay)—Researchers say they've discovered yet another reason to love coffee: A new study suggests that people who drink at least a cup a day have a lower risk of liver cancer compared to those who ...

Apr 09, 2014
popularity 4 / 5 (1) | comments 0

Are raw food claims overcooked?

Eating only raw foods has emerged as a popular dietary trend. Proclaiming an emotive health message, it is enough to make you think twice before next adding heat to your food. But fear not – on the scales ...

Feb 20, 2014
popularity 5 / 5 (1) | comments 0

Vimizim approved for rare childhood disorder

(HealthDay)—Vimizim (elosulfase alfa) has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat a rare childhood disorder called Mucopolysaccharidosis Type IVA, also known as Morquio A syndrome.

Feb 17, 2014
popularity not rated yet | comments 0

Enzyme

Enzymes are biomolecules that catalyze (i.e., increase the rates of) chemical reactions. Nearly all known enzymes are proteins. However, certain RNA molecules can be effective biocatalysts too. These RNA molecules have come to be known as ribozymes. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process are called substrates, and the enzyme converts them into different molecules, called the products. Almost all processes in a biological cell need enzymes to occur at significant rates. Since enzymes are selective for their substrates and speed up only a few reactions from among many possibilities, the set of enzymes made in a cell determines which metabolic pathways occur in that cell.

Like all catalysts, enzymes work by lowering the activation energy (Ea or ΔG‡) for a reaction, thus dramatically increasing the rate of the reaction. Most enzyme reaction rates are millions of times faster than those of comparable un-catalyzed reactions. As with all catalysts, enzymes are not consumed by the reactions they catalyze, nor do they alter the equilibrium of these reactions. However, enzymes do differ from most other catalysts by being much more specific. Enzymes are known to catalyze about 4,000 biochemical reactions. A few RNA molecules called ribozymes catalyze reactions, with an important example being some parts of the ribosome. Synthetic molecules called artificial enzymes also display enzyme-like catalysis.

Enzyme activity can be affected by other molecules. Inhibitors are molecules that decrease enzyme activity; activators are molecules that increase activity. Many drugs and poisons are enzyme inhibitors. Activity is also affected by temperature, chemical environment (e.g., pH), and the concentration of substrate. Some enzymes are used commercially, for example, in the synthesis of antibiotics. In addition, some household products use enzymes to speed up biochemical reactions (e.g., enzymes in biological washing powders break down protein or fat stains on clothes; enzymes in meat tenderizers break down proteins, making the meat easier to chew).

This text uses material from Wikipedia licensed under CC BY-SA