News tagged with information processing

Related topics: brain

EU food labels to help allergy sufferers

New EU labelling rules taking effect Saturday require restaurants and other businesses to tell customers if their food could trigger allergies or raise other health concerns.

Dec 13, 2014
popularity 5 / 5 (1) | comments 0

Dopamine helps with math rules as well as mood

The chemical messenger dopamine – otherwise known as the happiness hormone – is important not only for motivation and motor skills. It seems it can also help neurons with difficult cognitive tasks. Torben ...

Dec 05, 2014
popularity 4.5 / 5 (11) | comments 0

Optimal evidence accumulation in decision-making

(Medical Xpress)—At the same settings and light conditions, a camera will take the same picture every time. In contrast, a brain does not make perfect reconstructions of a stimulus. It appears instead to ...

Apr 08, 2013
popularity 5 / 5 (6) | comments 6 | with audio podcast report

Genome-wide atlas of gene enhancers in the brain online

Future research into the underlying causes of neurological disorders such as autism, epilepsy and schizophrenia, should greatly benefit from a first-of-its-kind atlas of gene-enhancers in the cerebrum (telencephalon). ...

Jan 31, 2013
popularity 4.6 / 5 (5) | comments 0 | with audio podcast

A scanner for hereditary defects

Our genetic material is constantly exposed to damage, which the body's own proteins normally repair. One of these proteins works like a scanner, continually scouring the genetic material for signs of damage. ...

Jan 24, 2013
popularity 4 / 5 (2) | comments 0 | with audio podcast

Gene that influences the ability to remember faces found

New findings suggest the oxytocin receptor, a gene known to influence mother-infant bonding and pair bonding in monogamous species, also plays a special role in the ability to remember faces. This research has important implications ...

Dec 23, 2013
popularity 5 / 5 (3) | comments 0 | with audio podcast

Information processing

Information processing is the change (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer. As such, it is a process which describes everything which happens (changes) in the universe, from the falling of a rock (a change in position) to the printing of a text file from a digital computer system. In the latter case, an information processor is changing the form of presentation of that text file. Information processing may more specifically be defined in terms used by Claude E. Shannon as the conversion of latent information into manifest information[citation needed]. Latent and manifest information is defined through the terms of equivocation (remaining uncertainty, what value the sender has actually chosen), dissipation (uncertainty of the sender what the receiver has actually received) and transformation (saved effort of questioning - equivocation minus dissipation)[citation needed].

Within the field of cognitive psychology, information processing is an approach to the goal of understanding human thinking. It arose in the 1940s and 1950s. The essence of the approach is to see cognition as being essentially computational in nature, with mind being the software and the brain being the hardware. The information processing approach in psychology is closely allied to cognitivism in psychology and functionalism in philosophy although the terms are not quite synonymous. Information processing may be sequential or parallel, either of which may be centralized or decentralized (distributed). The parallel distributed processing approach of the mid-1980s became popular under the name connectionism. In the early 1950s Friedrich Hayek was ahead of his time when he posited the idea of spontaneous order in the brain arising out of decentralized networks of simple units (neurons). However, Hayek is rarely cited in the literature of connectionism.

In the 1970s, Abraham Moles and Frieder Nake were among the first to establish and analyze links between information processing and aesthetics.

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