Oncology & Cancer

Many older patients with AML not receiving active treatment

(HealthDay)—Many older patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) do not receive any active treatment, and they have worse survival than those receiving active treatment, according to a study published online Sept. 4 in ...

Oncology & Cancer

Scientists develop possible strategy for cancer drug resistance

Scientists from the National Institutes of Health and Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center have devised a potential treatment against a common type of leukemia that could have implications for many other types of ...

Oncology & Cancer

Major breakthrough in the treatment of leukemia

A molecular process involved in the action of anti-leukemia drugs has been discovered at Université de Montréal's Institute for Research in Immunology and Cancer (IRIC). While calling into question a central tenet of oncology, ...

Oncology & Cancer

Making cancer stem cells visible to the immune system

Leukemia stem cells protect themselves against the immune defense by suppressing a target molecule for killer cells. This protective mechanism can be tricked with drugs. In the journal Nature, scientists from Basel, Tübingen ...

Medications

Selinexor for multiple myeloma receives accelerated FDA approval

A first-in-class drug recently granted accelerated approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for adult patients with heavily pretreated multiple myeloma has been the subject of study at Moffitt Cancer Center ...

Oncology & Cancer

A code of silence in acute myeloid leukemia

The development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is associated with a variety of genetic changes. Some of these alterations are epigenetic, wherein the sequence of the genes is unchanged, but chemical modifications to the ...

Oncology & Cancer

A new target in acute myeloid leukemia

Acute myeloid leukemia, a common leukemia in adults, is characterized by aberrant proliferation of cancerous bone marrow cells. Activating mutations in a protein receptor known as FLT3 receptor are among the most prevalent ...

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Acute myeloid leukemia (AML), also known as acute myelogenous leukemia, is a cancer of the myeloid line of blood cells, characterized by the rapid growth of abnormal white blood cells that accumulate in the bone marrow and interfere with the production of normal blood cells. AML is the most common acute leukemia affecting adults, and its incidence increases with age. Although AML is a relatively rare disease, accounting for approximately 1.2% of cancer deaths in the United States, its incidence is expected to increase as the population ages.

The symptoms of AML are caused by replacement of normal bone marrow with leukemic cells, which causes a drop in red blood cells, platelets, and normal white blood cells. These symptoms include fatigue, shortness of breath, easy bruising and bleeding, and increased risk of infection. Several risk factors and chromosomal abnormalities have been identified, but the specific cause is not clear. As an acute leukemia, AML progresses rapidly and is typically fatal within weeks or months if left untreated.

AML has several subtypes; treatment and prognosis varies among subtypes. Five-year survival varies from 15–70%, and relapse rate varies from 33-78%, depending on subtype. AML is treated initially with chemotherapy aimed at inducing a remission; patients may go on to receive additional chemotherapy or a hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Recent research into the genetics of AML has resulted in the availability of tests that can predict which drug or drugs may work best for a particular patient, as well as how long that patient is likely to survive.

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