New culprit in muscle defects, insulin resistance that come with age

May 4, 2010, Cell Press

Type 2 diabetes is a widespread problem for many people these days, and our risk for insulin resistance and diabetes only grows as we age. Now, a new report in the May issue of Cell Metabolism reveals a new contributor to the problem: The muscles of elderly people and of people with type 2 diabetes contain lower concentrations of a protein known as PARL (short for "presenilin-associated rhomboid-like").

PARL plays an important role within cells in remodeling power-generating mitochondria. It's PARL's job to oversee mitochondria's quality control, specifically by maintaining their integrity as the cellular components undergo normal processes of fission and fusion.

The findings provide yet another link between insulin resistance and the function of mitochondria, the researchers say.

When mitochondria aren't functioning properly, food doesn't get metabolized to the level that it should, explained Anthony Civitarese of Pennington Biomedical Research Center. Instead of getting burned, fats accumulate in cells where they impair insulin's action. As mitochondria fail to work efficiently, they also produce more damaging free radicals.

In the new study, Civitarese's team wanted to follow up on previous clues that PARL might play a role in mitochondrial abnormalities and insulin resistance. To do that, they examined PARL expression levels in the muscles of healthy young people compared to elderly people. Importantly, they specifically compared young and elderly people who were similar to one another in other respects, including their , fatty acid and glucose levels, and physical activity levels.

Relative to younger people, older people showed signs of insulin resistance. They also had fewer numbers of mitochondria and lower expression of the PARL gene.

Follow-up studies in mice showed that treatments designed to lower PARL levels in muscle led to fewer mitochondria, reductions in other important , and reduced . Studies in human muscle cells showed essentially the same thing, the researchers report.

"These overlapping answers point to a common mechanism for insulin resistance and the defects that come with aging," Civitarese said.

Together with earlier evidence, the findings show "that lower PARL expression is an early defect altering mitochondrial function and insulin resistance in response to a metabolic challenge," the researchers wrote. "We hypothesize that impaired PARL function is an important risk factor for the development of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle by decreasing mitochondrial mass and energetics and increasing oxidative stress, thus contributing to impaired glucose metabolism. As continues to develop, mitochondrial function, oxidative damage, and PARL activity may decline further, leading to a vicious cycle that eventually contributes to the development of T2DM or other age-associated diseases, including sarcopenia," a loss of muscle mass and strength.

Civitarese said it's not clear why PARL levels decline with age, but the findings suggest that increasing PARL levels may bring metabolic benefits. There is some possibility that PARL could be used as a drug or drug target, but he cautions that such a path would likely be difficult. That's because PARL does its work in a hard-to-reach place-- inside mitochondria, which are encapsulated in a double membrane.

More information: Ravussin et al.: “Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Oxidative Capacity and Insulin Signaling by the Mitochondrial Rhomboid Protease PARL.” Publishing in Cell Metabolism 11, 412-426, May 5, 2010. DOI:10.1016/j.cmet.2010.04.004

Related Stories

Recommended for you

Bioengineered soft microfibers improve T-cell production

January 18, 2018
T cells play a key role in the body's immune response against pathogens. As a new class of therapeutic approaches, T cells are being harnessed to fight cancer, promising more precise, longer-lasting mitigation than traditional, ...

Weight flux alters molecular profile, study finds

January 17, 2018
The human body undergoes dramatic changes during even short periods of weight gain and loss, according to a study led by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine.

Secrets of longevity protein revealed in new study

January 17, 2018
Named after the Greek goddess who spun the thread of life, Klotho proteins play an important role in the regulation of longevity and metabolism. In a recent Yale-led study, researchers revealed the three-dimensional structure ...

The HLF gene protects blood stem cells by maintaining them in a resting state

January 17, 2018
The HLF gene is necessary for maintaining blood stem cells in a resting state, which is crucial for ensuring normal blood production. This has been shown by a new research study from Lund University in Sweden published in ...

Magnetically applied MicroRNAs could one day help relieve constipation

January 17, 2018
Constipation is an underestimated and debilitating medical issue related to the opioid epidemic. As a growing concern, researchers look to new tools to help patients with this side effect of opioid use and aging.

Researchers devise decoy molecule to block pain where it starts

January 16, 2018
For anyone who has accidentally injured themselves, Dr. Zachary Campbell not only sympathizes, he's developing new ways to blunt pain.

0 comments

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.