Once blamed for aging, ROS molecules may actually extend life

June 8, 2011, Yale University

(Medical Xpress) -- In a new study, Yale University researchers have identified a pathway by which reactive oxygen species (ROS) molecules, which are usually implicated in the aging process due to their damage to DNA, can also act as cellular signaling molecules that extend lifespan. The study, which provides insights into the underlying mechanisms of the ROS signaling process, is published in the June issue of Cell Metabolism.

Increased ROS, and their effects at the , can lead to oxidative stress, which is involved in many diseases and aging. But ROS are also necessary for the proper functioning of the immune system and other biological functions. Using the yeast, the Yale team set out to determine whether regulating ROS and their ability to act as signaling molecules could impact the .

Inhibiting a signaling pathway called of Rapamycin (TOR), which is involved in sensing nutrients and cell growth, increases lifespan in yeast, as it does in mice. The Yale team found that a key way this occurs is by altering the function of cellular powerhouses called mitochondria so that they produce more signaling ROS.

"The concept that ROS are important cellular signaling molecules, and not just agents of damage and stress, has grown to be widely accepted," said lead author Gerald S. Shadel, Ph.D., professor of pathology and genetics at Yale School of Medicine. "Remarkably, in this study, we show that their purposeful production by mitochondria can even provide an adaptive signal that can delay aging."

Since the TOR pathway operates largely the same in yeast as it does in humans, the new connections to mitochondrial ROS signaling and aging in this study may be more widely applicable. Shadel said that new ways to intervene in age-related pathology may stem from these basic studies. "Trials targeting the TOR pathway as an anti-cancer strategy in humans are already underway. Our study suggests that carefully augmenting mitochondria and ROS production in humans may also be beneficial in combating aging and associated diseases."

Other authors are Yong Pan and Elizabeth A. Schroeder of Yale School of Medicine; Alejandro Ocampo of the Yale Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; and Antonio Barrientos of Yale and the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine.

Related Stories

Recommended for you

Researchers illustrate how muscle growth inhibitor is activated, could aid in treating ALS

January 19, 2018
Researchers at the University of Cincinnati (UC) College of Medicine are part of an international team that has identified how the inactive or latent form of GDF8, a signaling protein also known as myostatin responsible for ...

Bioengineered soft microfibers improve T-cell production

January 18, 2018
T cells play a key role in the body's immune response against pathogens. As a new class of therapeutic approaches, T cells are being harnessed to fight cancer, promising more precise, longer-lasting mitigation than traditional, ...

Weight flux alters molecular profile, study finds

January 17, 2018
The human body undergoes dramatic changes during even short periods of weight gain and loss, according to a study led by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine.

Secrets of longevity protein revealed in new study

January 17, 2018
Named after the Greek goddess who spun the thread of life, Klotho proteins play an important role in the regulation of longevity and metabolism. In a recent Yale-led study, researchers revealed the three-dimensional structure ...

The HLF gene protects blood stem cells by maintaining them in a resting state

January 17, 2018
The HLF gene is necessary for maintaining blood stem cells in a resting state, which is crucial for ensuring normal blood production. This has been shown by a new research study from Lund University in Sweden published in ...

Magnetically applied MicroRNAs could one day help relieve constipation

January 17, 2018
Constipation is an underestimated and debilitating medical issue related to the opioid epidemic. As a growing concern, researchers look to new tools to help patients with this side effect of opioid use and aging.

1 comment

Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

Shakescene21
not rated yet Jun 08, 2011
Interesting, but I'm still unconvinced that higher ROS can extend life in humans. The damages caused by ROS tend to be slow but cumulative. These cumulative effects are probably more important for humans, with a lifespan of 80 years, than for yeast with a lifespan of a few weeks.

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.