Five big strides to fight lung disease in our tiniest patients
For Ottawa scientist and neonatologist Dr. Bernard Thébaud, even a major paper that answers five significant questions still doesn't seem quite enough in his determined path to get his laboratory breakthrough into the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Dr. Thébaud's proposed therapy would use stem cells from umbilical cords to treat a disease previously thought to be untreatable—bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or BPD.
"BPD is a lung disease described 45 years ago in which we have made zero progress. And now, with these cord-derived stem cells there is a true potential for a major breakthrough," says Dr. Thébaud, a senior scientist at the Ottawa Hospital Research Institute and CHEO Research Institute, a neonatologist at CHEO and The Ottawa Hospital, and a professor in the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Ottawa.
"I am confident that we have the talent and the tools here at CHEO and OHRI to find a treatment for BPD. These findings published today are helping us get there," continues Thébaud.
BPD affects approximately 10,000 very premature newborns in Canada and the U.S. every year. The lungs of these infants are not developed enough to sustain them, so they must receive oxygen through a breathing machine. However, this combination of mechanical ventilation and oxygen damages the lungs and stops their development. In addition, longer stays in the NICU for these extremely premature babies affect the normal development of other parts of the body, including the retina, the kidneys and the brain.
Today in the journal Thorax, Dr. Thébaud's team provides significant findings in experiments with newborn rats given oxygen. The lung development of a newborn rat mimics that of a premature baby born at 24 weeks. The five major findings reported in Thorax are:
- Stem cells called mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from a human umbilical cord (not the blood) have a protective effect on the lungs when injected into the lungs as they were put on oxygen.
- MSCs had a reparative effect when injected two weeks after being on oxygen.
- When conditioned media—a cell-free substance produced by MSCs—was administered instead of MSCs, it was found to have the same protective and reparative effects as the stem cells.
- When examined after six months (the equivalent of 40 human years), treated animals had better exercise performance and persistent benefit in lung structure.
- MSCs did not adversely affect the long-term health of normal rats. One of the concerns about stem cells is that by promoting cell growth, they may cause cancerous growth. To address this question, Dr. Thébaud gave MSCs to a control group that was not treated with oxygen. When examined after six months, these animals were normal and healthy.
"It's going to happen here in Ottawa, but for babies worldwide," says Dr. Thébaud.