Maternal vitamin D tied to risk of small for gestational age
Alison D. Gernand, Ph.D., M.P.H., R.D., from the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, and colleagues assayed serum samples at 12 to 26 weeks of gestation for 25-hydroxyvitamin D in 792 participants in a trial of low-dose aspirin for prevention of preeclampsia in high-risk women. After adjustment for confounders, including maternal pre-pregnancy obesity, race, treatment allocation, and risk group, the correlation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and the risk of SGA was assessed.
The researchers found that, at birth, 13 percent of neonates were SGA. Women who delivered SGA had lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations (57.9 nmol/L) than those with non-SGA neonates (64.8 nmol/L; P = 0.028). Compared with 25-hydroxyvitamin-D concentrations of <30 nmol/L, the risk of SGA was reduced by 43 percent with concentrations of 50 to 74 nmol/L and by 54 percent with concentrations of 75 nmol/L or greater, in adjusted models. This association was modified by race and maternal obesity. The risk of SGA was significantly reduced by 68 and 50 percent, respectively, for white and non-obese women with 25-hydroxyvitamin D of 50 nmol/L or greater versus <50 nmol/L. In black or obese women, 25-hydroxyvitamin D was not associated with the risk of SGA.
"Maternal vitamin D status in the second trimester is associated with risk of SGA among all women and in the subgroups of white and non-obese women," the authors write.
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