Estimated 1.65 million global cardiovascular deaths each year linked to high sodium consumption

salt

More than 1.6 million cardiovascular-related deaths per year can be attributed to sodium consumption above the World Health Organization's recommendation of 2.0g (2,000mg) per day, researchers have found in a new analysis evaluating populations across 187 countries. The findings were published in the August 14 issue of The New England Journal of Medicine.

"High sodium intake is known to increase , a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases including heart disease and stroke," said first and corresponding author Dariush Mozaffarian, M.D., Dr.P.H., dean of the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy at Tufts University, who led the research while at the Harvard School of Public Health. "However, the effects of excess sodium intake on cardiovascular diseases globally by age, sex, and nation had not been well established."

The researchers collected and analyzed existing data from 205 surveys of sodium intake in countries representing nearly three-quarters of the world's adult population, in combination with other global nutrition data, to calculate sodium intakes worldwide by country, age, and sex. Effects of sodium on blood pressure and of blood pressure on cardiovascular diseases were determined separately in new pooled meta-analyses, including differences by age and race. These findings were combined with current rates of cardiovascular diseases around the world to estimate the numbers of cardiovascular deaths attributable to sodium consumption above 2.0g per day.

The researchers found the average level of global sodium consumption in 2010 to be 3.95g per day, nearly double the 2.0g recommended by the World Health Organization. All regions of the world were above recommended levels, with regional averages ranging from 2.18g per day in sub-Saharan Africa to 5.51g per day in Central Asia. In their meta-analysis of controlled intervention studies, the researchers found that reduced sodium intake lowered blood pressure in all adults, with the largest effects identified among older individuals, blacks, and those with pre-existing high blood pressure.

"These 1.65 million deaths represent nearly one in 10 of all deaths from cardiovascular causes worldwide. No world region and few countries were spared," added Mozaffarian, who chairs the Global Burden of Diseases, Nutrition, and Chronic Disease Expert Group, an international team of more than 100 scientists studying the effects of nutrition on health and who contributed to this effort. "These new findings inform the need for strong policies to reduce in the United States and across the world."

In the United States, average daily sodium intake was 3.6g, 80 percent higher than the amount recommended by the World Health Organization. [The federal government's Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend limiting intake of sodium to no more than 2,300mg (2.3g) per day.] The researchers found that nearly 58,000 cardiovascular deaths each year in the United States could be attributed to daily sodium consumption greater than 2.0g. Sodium intake and corresponding health burdens were even higher in many developing countries.

"We found that four out of five global deaths attributable to higher than recommended sodium intakes occurred in middle- and low-income countries," added John Powles, M.B., B.S., last author and honorary senior visiting fellow in the department of public health and primary care at the University of Cambridge. "Programs to reduce sodium intake could provide a practical and cost effective means for reducing premature deaths in adults around the world."

The authors acknowledge that their results utilize estimates based on urine samples, which may underestimate true sodium intakes. Additionally, some countries lacked data on consumption, which was estimated based on other nutritional information; and, because the study focuses on cardiovascular deaths, the findings may not reflect the full health impact of , which is also linked to higher risk of nonfatal cardiovascular diseases, kidney disease and stomach cancer, the second most-deadly cancer worldwide.


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Adults worldwide eat almost double daily AHA recommended amount of sodium

More information: Mozaffarian, D; Fahimi, S; Singh, G; Micha, R; Khatibzadeh, S; Engell, R; Lim, S; Goodarz, D; Ezzati, M; and Powles, J. "Global sodium consumption and death from cardiovascular causes." N Engl J Med 2014. 371:7, 624-634. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1304127
Journal information: New England Journal of Medicine

Provided by Tufts University
Citation: Estimated 1.65 million global cardiovascular deaths each year linked to high sodium consumption (2014, August 13) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2014-08-million-global-cardiovascular-deaths-year.html
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Aug 13, 2014
Salt and sugar, two poisons of our times. We are wired to like them, and hence food companies load foods with these. They will be reluctant to change, for obvious reasons. Without strong regulation, these two poisons will continue to kill us.

Aug 13, 2014
Hmmm, and smoking kills 5 million per year (http://www.cdc.go...facts/).
In Australia they cover ciggie packs with disgusting picks of cancers and other smoking diseases. Should they now do the same with SALT?????
What about new cars?? I reckon all new cars should have graphic pictures of car accidents sprayed all over them, to remind them what could happen when driving.

Aug 13, 2014
This headline is erroneous and the study has at least one major problem. It is a meta analysis of a meta analysis. They used a meta-analysis of data to determine the amount of people who had high blood pressure that was sodium sensitive and then they used that data to do another meta-analysis of how that high blood pressure resulted in heart disease. Meta-analyses are useful to indicate areas where further research might be warranted, but basing government policies based on a meta-analysis of a meta-analysis is just plain stupid.

In addition, the data on sodium consumption was based on sodium *secretion* for the most part (some of the data was just based on average diet info). In a healthy person, it's probably safe to correlate secretion and intake. But since a major drug of choice for hypertension actually increases sodium secretion, they are overestimating consumption and confusing the issue further.


Aug 13, 2014
poison is a really strong word to use here.... like ridiculously out of line word to use... Sure you we need to cut back on our intake of these but it's not like its rat poison in our food.
Strictly speaking about salt and sugar not additives etc. Pretty basic things needed by the body hardly poison. We could regulate milk intake on an individual level though too. I hear drinking 8 glasses of that consecutively can kill. Better run to regulation for the cure.

Aug 13, 2014
Even if you believe this "study" which I don't, deaths are dropping !

Eating too much salt led to 2.3 million heart-related deaths worldwide in 2010 [ Mar 21, 2013]
Eating too much salt contributed to 2.3 million deaths from heart attacks, strokes and other heart-related diseases throughout the world in 2010, representing 15 percent of all deaths due to these causes, according to research

Aug 14, 2014
Salt and sugar, two poisons of our times. We are wired to like them, and hence food companies load foods with these. They will be reluctant to change, for obvious reasons. Without strong regulation, these two poisons will continue to kill us.

It may be MSG that is the real problem. My stubbornly high BP, even with meds, is now at the level it was when I was 17 (now 62) with no medication, when I quit eating/drinking anything containing MSG. Also wheezy asthma cleared up, eyesight much better. All symptoms associated with MSG, which I didn't know until I became violently ill and tracked down the problem. Search for "MSG, Cancer, and Your Heart" to find videos on the subject.

Aug 14, 2014
Debbie M_

This headline is erroneous and the study has at least one major problem. It is a meta analysis of a meta analysis. They used a meta-analysis of data to determine the amount of people who had high blood pressure that was sodium sensitive and then they used that data to do another meta-analysis of how that high blood pressure resulted in heart disease. Meta-analyses are useful to indicate areas where further research might be warranted, but basing government policies based on a meta-analysis of a meta-analysis is just plain stupid.


A very insightful observation, Debbie. I get so tired of meta-analyses being presented as if they were definitive double blind studies. Basing policy on such manipulations of data is simply egregious.

Aug 14, 2014
And then there's this: http://medicalxpr...lt.html. You pays your money and you takes your chances. Good luck!

Aug 14, 2014
2000 mg/day Na is wrong recommendation, the optimum for an adult is not more than 500 mg. .
Really ? So those that sweat a lot needs the same amount as those that don't ? I have been consuming at least 3000mg a day for 40 years.I have lowish blood pressure 110/70, I have not been to a hospital in over 30 years and I look 20 years younger than most of my peers. We are all unique in our genetic make-up and mutations, what is good for one is not always good for another ! I hate blanket statement ..Smoking does not cause cancer, salt does not cause high blood pressure or hypertension,fat does not cause hardening of the arteries,etc. They can only exacerbate a genetic condition. This is why someone can smoke for 70 years and never get cancer and someone who never smoked dies young from lung cancer & same as the other conditions mentioned.

Aug 14, 2014
http://www.nbcnew...-n179941
An international study of more than 100,000 people published Wednesday in the New England Journal of Medicine suggests that while there is a relationship between salt intake and high blood pressure, if you don't already have high blood pressure and you're not over 60 or eating way too much salt, salt won't have much impact on your blood pressure.
In fact, people who consumed 3,000 to 6,000 milligrams per day had a lower risk of death and cardiovascular events than those who had more than 6,000 mg or less than 3,000 mg.



Aug 17, 2014
Yeah, Yanks, keep eatin' that poison McDonald's and other fast food joints hand out' ta' ya'. Den' wen' yer country gets de-people-ated, we foreigner's will mooooooooove on in.

Aug 17, 2014
Salt is not the problem unless you have already wrecked your health eating simple carbohydrates. Most natural fats including animal fats are good for your health unless they are combined with simple carbs like bread, potatoes, and corn. It is the combination of simple carbs and fats that increase the LDL cholesterol levels that do all of the harm. Diabetes has skyrocketed in the US since the advent of low fat high carb diets.

Aug 17, 2014
Padre53

skills4u
Really? So those that sweat a lot needs the same amount as those that don't?
Really! 10 th. ed. of RDA (1989) 500 mg sodium per day, current Australian: 460-920 mg/day. http://www.nrv.go...dium.htm


You evidently do not read or underfstand your own sources !

In industrialised countries, the majority of ingested sodium chloride is excreted in the urine, provided that sweating is not excessive


. In sodium and fluid balance, with minimal sweat losses, the amount of sodium excreted in urine roughly equals intake


Physical activity can potentially affect sodium chloride balance, mostly from increased losses in sweat. People who regularly undertake strenuous activity in the heat can lose substantial amounts of sodium. Loss of sodium in sweat is dependent on overall diet, sodium intake, sweating rate, hydration status and degree of acclimatisation to the heat


So in a health body, you pee out as much as you intake !

Aug 17, 2014
Padre53

You also like to quote
10 th. ed. of RDA (1989) 500 mg sodium per day, current Australian

But you fail to mention the rational behind the recommendation !
Rationale: As there are insufficient data from dose-response trials, an EAR could not be established, and thus a RDI could not be derived. An AI for adults for sodium was set at 460-920 mg/day (20-40 mmol/day) to ensure that basic requirements are met and to allow for adequate intakes of other nutrients. This AI may not apply to highly active individuals, such as endurance athletes or those undertaking highly physical work in hot conditions, who lose large amounts of sweat on a daily basis.

Aug 17, 2014
skills4u
You evidently do not read or underfstand your own sources! ... mostly from increased losses in sweat.
You must think again and read the real science of salt and sodium intakes. The significant loss in sweat is only urban legend!


WOW really ? Those quotes were from the sources you used to make your point ! So are you now saying your sources are bunk ???

Aug 17, 2014
NO, you pick what agrees with your thoughts and disregard what doesn't agree with you.Cherry picking. The quotes I provided were from the studies you quoted.

Aug 17, 2014
Padre53: I would have thought that you, having spent so much time perseverating on the topic, would have investigated how or why sodium gets into cells in the first place. You make it sound like cells are barely surviving an onslaught of sodium that they somehow can't prevent from leaking in. But in actuality the cell intentionally creates a sodium gradient, and as such the concentration outside the cell matters not so much as the difference in concentrations inside and out. The cells are using sodium moving into the cell to move other chemicals in or out, and therefore the amount of sodium moving in depends on the metabolic and catabolic activity level of the cell, not on the exterior concentration. If too much material is moving in or out (and therefore too much sodium), the cell simply starts inactivating transport proteins and creating fewer new ones, thus down-regulating sodium import. It's too bad you've wasted so much time on your pet theory.

Aug 17, 2014
Padre53

No! I picked the traces of the real science. Your knowledge and logic is not enough. Can you understand this: "what is bunk in one source and what is not bunk in the same source!"?

EXACTLY ! This is what cherry picking is ! You can not use a study and say their findings are correct but with exceptions,otherwise it is not credible !

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