Two mechanisms work in tandem to form memories of frightening events

Two mechanisms work in tandem to form memories of frightening events
Figure 1: Although a beep and a mild electric shock become associated through Hebbian plasticity, the presence of noradrenaline is needed to create a fear memory. Credit: RIKEN Brain Science Institute

The formation of memories of fearful experiences involves not only changes in brain wiring, but also the action of a chemical known as noradrenaline, shows a study led by researchers from the RIKEN Brain Science Institute. This understanding has enabled the researchers to artificially implant a fear memory in rats.

A type of called 'Hebbian plasticity' has long been linked with memory formation. According to Hebbian theory, when two connected neurons fire together repeatedly, they become associated in a way that causes one to facilitate the firing of the other. This explains, for example, how rats soon learn to fear a beeping sound if it occurs in conjunction with a mild .

"What has really been missing, however," says Joshua Johansen from the research team, "is a test of Hebbian plasticity in the actual working brain."

So Johansen and colleagues from RIKEN and other institutions investigated the mechanisms underlying the way rats learn to fear paired with mild electric shocks. They concentrated on 'pyramidal cells' in a brain structure called the amygdala. These cells are known to be important in fear-memory formation, and also to receive inputs from many other neurons, including ones that respond to sound.

The team showed that a Hebbian process was indeed present, with neurons responding to the auditory stimuli firing simultaneously with pyramidal cells responding to the electric shock. "We have shown that the conditions necessary for Hebbian plasticity to occur are present," explains Johansen.

However, they discovered that another process is also essential for fear memories to form. Using a technique called optogenetics, by which nerve cells can be activated with light, the researchers showed that artificially activating the pyramidal cells to simulate the electric shock in concert with an actual auditory stimulus did not result in a fear memory. They discovered that a fear memory was only produced when accompanied by a shock, even a mild one.

The researchers explain that the electric shock not only excites the pyramidal cells, but also causes the release of a neuromodulator chemical, , which also acts on the (Fig. 1). Johansen's team then showed that noradrenaline needed to be present for a fear memory to be laid down.

Armed with this knowledge, the team succeeded in inducing a fear memory without an electric shock. "We were able to artificially implant a based on a better understanding of the plasticity mechanisms," says Johansen.


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More information: Johansen, J. P., Diaz-Mataiz, L., Hamanaka, H., Ozawa, T., Ycu, E., Koivumaa, J., Kumar, A., Hou, M., Deisseroth, K., Boyden, E. S., LeDoux, J. E. "Hebbian and neuromodulatory mechanisms interact to trigger associative memory formation." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 111, 51 (2014). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1421304111
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Citation: Two mechanisms work in tandem to form memories of frightening events (2015, January 16) retrieved 20 July 2019 from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2015-01-mechanisms-tandem-memories-events.html
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Feb 14, 2015
Here's my take on this study:
The researchers are misguided in focusing on solutions such as external mechanisms to forget these memories. The researchers should think in terms of how their research can help people who can help themselves instead of having something done to them. After all, we're humans who can participate in therapy, not lab rats who need to be fixed.

A therapy such as Dr. Arthur Janov's Primal Therapy enables people to reduce the strength of painful memories by re-experiencing the memories in their original contexts a little bit at a time, as much as the person can handle. The valences of the pain are eventually reduced. The memories remain, but are resolved in that the person no longer suffers from their pain.

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