Role of vitamin D in vascular complications and vascular access outcome in patients with chronic kid

vitamin D
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In recent years, a growing interest has prompted research to find new links between vitamin D and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), cell proliferation, and anti-apoptotic cell paths in the vascular system. The activation of vitamin D receptors (VDRs) on endothelial cells induces changes in the metabolic activity of the endothelium and is responsible for cell survival, proliferation and neoangiogenesis.

Recent studies linked D deficiency with cardiovascular diseases. For example, studies have shown that normal levels of vitamin D have a pivotal role in reducing the physiological activity of RAAS, due to the suppression of the renin gene, renin reduced disposal and the decrease of its circulating levels, thereby down-regulating the RAAS.

In particular, vitamin D blunts the compensatory increase of renin synthesis occurring during chronic administration of anti-RAAS agents. Indeed, in experimental models, the administration of vitamin D analogs blocked the compensatory increase of renin expression ameliorating the efficacy of RAAS inhibitors.

Deficiency of vitamin D in patients with (CKD) or in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) receiving hemodialysis is not only a key factor in the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism, but it is also associated with other complications. The immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of vitamin D may have particular relevance in CKD patients and in ESRD patients, as the uremic state induces biochemical changes that turn in a marked condition of inflammation and oxidative stress as observed in calcitriol deficiency status.

Few and very recent studies have directly investigated the role of vitamin D in vascular access. Two retrospective studies and one randomized, double-blind prospective study analyzed the effects of vitamin D on arterious-venous fistula (AVF) patency with contrasting results. Therefore, to better define the relationship between vitamin D and AVF outcomes, more studies involving a large number of patients are required.


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Certain factors affect vitamin D levels in children with chronic kidney disease

More information: Domenico Santoro et al, Role of Vitamin D in Vascular Complications and Vascular Access Outcome in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease, Current Medicinal Chemistry (2016). DOI: 10.2174/0929867323666160405112019
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Citation: Role of vitamin D in vascular complications and vascular access outcome in patients with chronic kid (2016, July 13) retrieved 20 May 2019 from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2016-07-role-vitamin-d-vascular-complications.html
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