The brain uses backward instant replays to remember important travel routes

August 25, 2016
A rat enjoys a drink of chocolate liquid. Credit: Ellen Ambrose, Johns Hopkins Medicine

You're shipwrecked on a desert island. You wander from your base camp in desperation, searching for water. Suddenly, a stream appears! The water is fresh and clear, the best you've ever tasted. There's just one problem: There's no trace of how you got there, and you're not sure you can find it again next time.

Now Johns Hopkins neuroscientists believe they have figured out how some mammals' brains—in this case, rats—solve such navigational problems. If there's a "reward" at the end of the trip, like the chocolatey drink used in their study, specialized neurons in the hippocampus of the brain "replay" the route taken to get it, but backward. And the greater the reward, the more often the rats' brains replay it.

According to the researchers, the finding suggests that both the presence and magnitude of rewards influence how and how well the hippocampus forms memories. The hippocampus is a vertebrate brain structure long known to be vital for making and storing memories, and in so-called spatial relations.

A summary of the work will appear online Aug. 25 in the journal Neuron.

"We've long known that the brains of awake animals have these replay events when they pause in their travels. Now we know that the information in those replays is influenced by reward, probably to help solidify those memories," says David Foster, Ph.D., associate professor of neuroscience at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.

As animals—including humans—scurry about or otherwise travel through an environment, their oscillate up and down, Foster notes. When they pause, and when they are in slow-wave sleep, their brain waves calm down, oscillating more gently, except for one or two "sharp wave ripples" per second. The sharp wave ripple pattern—a deep dive from baseline, followed by several small ripples and a return to baseline—takes just one-tenth of a second, but it is then that those "replays" occur in hippocampal neurons called , he explains.

Each place cell in a rat's brain has a favorite spot: a specific location in a specific environment where it likes to fire. Previous research in Foster's laboratory revealed that, before going anywhere, rats actually "envision" their routes through the sequential firing of place cells. The researchers also knew that sometimes, during pauses, rats replay sequences in reverse, but no one knew why.

In the new study, the rats had a very simple task: Run back and forth along a linear track between points we'll call A and F. On each trial run, the rats were sometimes provided with a chocolatey liquid reward at point A or F, but they were just as content to run the track without a reward.

While the rats were running, the scientists monitored the activity of more than 100 place cells at a time—a feat made possible by weeks of patiently placing 40 miniature wires, thinner than a human hair, into the hippocampus of each rat to monitor the electrical activity of about five to 10 nearby place cells. Each place cell would fire when the rat was in a specific part of the track: point B, for example, or region C through E.

On an ordinary run, a rat enjoying its reward at F would experience an equal number of forward and backward replays: Its place cells would sometimes represent a sequence of A, B, C, D, E, F and sometimes F, E, D, C, B, A. But that was not the case when the amount of reward was altered at point F. The number of forward replays remained the same, but the number of reverse replays increased or decreased in unison with the change in the reward.

"The two types of replay are very similar," says Foster. "There's no obvious reason for one to be more prevalent than the other, so we think this is the brain's way of linking a reward with the path taken to reach that reward." Back on the desert island, if the same mechanism occurs in humans, Foster says, the process could help a person recall how to get back to the stream by making important what were previously unimportant details about one's surroundings.

Foster says a lot more research needs to be done to learn details about the result of these reverse replays, and if their findings do indeed apply to humans. But he thinks this research already suggests the importance of giving the brain frequent "pauses" or breaks from the "rat race" of life, since these replay events only occur when the rats pause long enough to enjoy a sip of chocolate.

Explore further: Brain caught 'filing' memories during rest

More information: Ambrose et al.: "Reverse replay of hippocampal place cells is uniquely modulated by changing reward." Neuron, DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2016.07.047

Related Stories

Brain caught 'filing' memories during rest

April 18, 2016
Memories formed in one part of the brain are replayed and transferred to a different area of the brain during rest, according to a new UCL study in rats.

Rats recall past to make daily decisions

May 3, 2012
(Medical Xpress) -- UCSF scientists have identified patterns of brain activity in the rat brain that play a role in the formation and recall of memories and decision-making. The discovery, which builds on the team's previous ...

Going places: Rat brain 'GPS' maps routes to rewards

April 17, 2013
While studying rats' ability to navigate familiar territory, Johns Hopkins scientists found that one particular brain structure uses remembered spatial information to imagine routes the rats then follow. Their discovery has ...

'Brain GPS' network allows brain to track location when at rest

March 3, 2016
UC San Francisco scientists have discovered a network of brain cells that allows animals to keep track of where they are when they are not moving through space, such as when they are eating, engaged in social interactions, ...

Gene linked to Alzheimer's disease impairs memory by disrupting brain's 'playback system'

May 6, 2016
Scientists at the Gladstone Institutes have discovered how the major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease causes memory impairment. A specific type of brain activity important for memory replay is disrupted in mice ...

Recommended for you

Investigating patterns of degeneration in Alzheimer's disease

November 17, 2017
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is known to cause memory loss and cognitive decline, but other functions of the brain can remain intact. The reasons cells in some brain regions degenerate while others are protected is largely unknown. ...

Study may point to new treatment approach for ASD

November 17, 2017
Using sophisticated genome mining and gene manipulation techniques, researchers at Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC) have solved a mystery that could lead to a new treatment approach for autism spectrum disorder ...

Paraplegic rats walk and regain feeling after stem cell treatment

November 16, 2017
Engineered tissue containing human stem cells has allowed paraplegic rats to walk independently and regain sensory perception. The implanted rats also show some degree of healing in their spinal cords. The research, published ...

Brain implant tested in human patients found to improve memory recall

November 15, 2017
(Medical Xpress)—A team of researchers with the University of Southern California and the Wake Forest School of Medicine has conducted experiments involving implanting electrodes into the brains of human volunteers to see ...

Researchers identify potential mediator for social memory formation

November 15, 2017
Research by a group of scientists at the Department of Physiology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore (NUS Medicine) have discovered that a tiny brain region plays a critical role in the formation ...

Improving clinical trials with machine learning

November 15, 2017
Machine learning could improve our ability to determine whether a new drug works in the brain, potentially enabling researchers to detect drug effects that would be missed entirely by conventional statistical tests, finds ...

1 comment

Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

Nik_2213
5 / 5 (1) Aug 25, 2016
There is a technical fix, of course; 'Blaze a Trail' by snapping branches, scarring trees, piling flat stones etc.

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.