Finding the Achilles heel of cancer

March 28, 2018, Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia
Finding the Achilles heel of cancer
Healthy cells (left image) display four centrioles, a normal number (in yellow). On the contrary, breast cancer cells (triple negative) have extra centrioles (here 16, right image). Credit: Gaëlle Marteil, IGC.

A research team led by Monica Bettencourt Dias, from Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia (IGC, Portugal), has discovered important features of cancer cells that may help clinicians fighting cancer. The researchers observed that the number and size of tiny cellular structures called centrioles are increased in the most aggressive sub-types of cancer. This study will be published in Nature Communications on the 28th of March.

Some tumours are more aggressive and resistant to chemotherapy than others. Clinicians are eager to find novel diagnostic, prognostic and treatment tools that allow them to predict outcomes and treat patients in a more personalised way. The study may contribute to this process.

About 100 times smaller than the cross section of a hair, centrioles have been called the cell's "brain," as they play crucial roles in cell multiplication, movement and communication. Their number and size are highly controlled in . Since their discovery more than a century ago, it has been proposed that an abnormal increase in the number of these structures may induce cancer..

Bettencourt-Dias's team investigated the incidence of centriole abnormalities in human cancer cells. The researchers thoroughly analysed a panel of 60 human cancer lines originated from 9 distinct tissues. Their results reveal that often have extra and longer centrioles, which are absent in normal cells. Importantly, the research team observed that supernumerary centrioles are more prevalent in aggressive and . Also, the team discovered that longer centrioles are excessively active, which perturbs cell division and could favour cancer formation.

"Our data confirm that deregulated number and size of centrioles inside cells is associated with malignant features. This finding may help establishing centriole properties as a way of classifying tumours in order to establish prognosis and predict treatment response," says Gaelle Marteil, first author of this study and researcher at Bettencourt-Dias laboratory.

What is the next step? "The cell lines that we analysed are already well characterized in terms of genetic changes and resistance to therapeutics. We are pursuing our studies in collaboration with Nuno Barbosa-Morais' team at Instituto de Medicina Molecular, in Lisbon, and Joana Paredes at I3S, in Porto, to explore new mechanisms and therapeutics that could target in cancer," adds Monica Bettencourt-Dias.

Explore further: New discovery may enhance chemotherapy's efficiency against leukaemia

More information: Marteil, G., Guerrero, A., Vieira, A.F., de Almeida, B.P., Machado, P., Mendonça, S., Mesquita, M., Vilarreal, B., Fonseca, I., Francia, M.E., Dores, K., Martins, N.P., Jana, S.C., Tranfield, E.M., Barbosa-Morais, N.L., Paredes, J., Pellman, D., Godinho, S.A., Bettencourt-Dias, M. (2018) Over-elongation of Centrioles in Cancer Promotes Centriole Amplification and Chromosome Missegregation. Nature Communications. DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-03641-x

Related Stories

New discovery may enhance chemotherapy's efficiency against leukaemia

December 13, 2017
In patients with acute myeloid leukaemia, cancer cells resist the effects of chemotherapy, many times resulting in disease recurrence and ultimately death. Researchers from Instituto de Medicina Molecular (iMM) João Lobo ...

Recommended for you

A protein called vaccinia-related kinase 1 may help cancer establish itself in new areas of the body during metastasis

September 25, 2018
Sometimes negative results can point researchers in the right direction.

Brigatinib becomes potential new first-line option for ALK-positive non-small lung cancer

September 25, 2018
Results of a 275-patient, multi-national phase III clinical trial known as ALTA-1L published today in the New England Journal of Medicine and presented concurrently in the press program at the International Association for ...

Two studies describe improved approach to bone marrow transplant

September 25, 2018
Two recent studies in the journal Leukemia present a new approach for bone marrow donation and transplant that preclinical laboratory tests suggest could make the life-saving procedure safer and more effective for patients.

Combo therapy of prostatectomy plus radiotherapy may improve survival in prostate cancer

September 25, 2018
High-risk prostate cancer, that which has continued to grow but not yet metastasized, is commonly treated with combination therapies. Each method has pros and cons, but there is little clarity whether one might be more effective ...

Method identified to reduce risk of brain damage in leukemia survivors

September 25, 2018
Children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are at an extremely high risk of sepsis compared to the general population. In the first-published study of its kind, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital scientists have ...

Unhealthy lifestyle responsible for 45,000 predicted cases of bowel cancer in next decade

September 25, 2018
A UNSW study shows that a large proportion of bowel cancers in Australia are preventable by adopting a healthy lifestyle – particularly for men.

0 comments

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.