New adjuvant successful in extending immunity against HIV

HIV
Microscopic image of an HIV-infected T cell. Credit: NIAID

Researchers at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center and the Emory Vaccine Center (EVC) are first to show a new adjuvant, 3M-052, helps induce long-lasting immunity against HIV. The study results are published today in Science Immunology.

In this pre- that included 90 , the researchers showed 3M-052, a new, synthetic small molecule that targets a specific receptor (TLR 7/8), successfully induced vaccine-specific, long-lived bone marrow plasma cells (BM-LLPCs), which are critical for durable immunity. In a striking observation, 3M-052-induced BM-LLPCs were maintained at high numbers for more than one year after vaccination. This prolonged interval is not only feasible in monitoring pre-, it is also highly informative in down selecting vaccine candidates.

First author Sudhir Pai Kasturi, Ph.D., an assistant professor in the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine and a research assistant professor at Yerkes and the EVC, says, "We have known adjuvants are critical immunity-boosting supplements that help improve the effectiveness of vaccines. Until now, however, it has been unclear which class of adjuvants can promote stable and long-lived immunity in nonhuman primate models. Our study provides that information."

Co-senior author Rafi Ahmed, Ph.D., director of the Emory Vaccine Center, adds, "The key to a successful vaccine is durability of immune responses. Antibodies provide the first line of defense against pathogens, and are maintained by the generation of long-lived plasma cells that reside in bone marrow. Our study identifies an adjuvant that is effective in generating such long-lived plasma cells in bone marrow. This finding has implications for developing successful vaccines against HIV, influenza and, especially important now, COVID-19.


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More information: Sudhir Pai Kasturi et al, 3M-052, a synthetic TLR-7/8 agonist, induces durable HIV-1 envelope–specific plasma cells and humoral immunity in nonhuman primates, Science Immunology (2020). DOI: 10.1126/sciimmunol.abb1025
Journal information: Science Immunology

Provided by Emory University
Citation: New adjuvant successful in extending immunity against HIV (2020, June 20) retrieved 4 August 2020 from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2020-06-adjuvant-successful-immunity-hiv.html
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