Medical research

New drug helps combat metabolic syndrome

A new drug developed at Yale reduces a host of abnormalities associated with metabolic syndrome, an obesity-born condition that afflicts one of three adults in the United States, researchers report Oct. 2 in the journal Science ...

Cardiology

24-year-old's fainting was a clue to her fatal heart condition

Christie Tolosky went to her family doctor's office to get a prescription for a toothache. She collapsed and was dead within an hour, leaving doctors looking for clues about what happened to the otherwise healthy 24-year-old.

Medical research

Lipid produced by organism helps control blood sugar

Researchers based in Brazil, the United States and Germany have discovered that 12-HEPE, a lipid produced in response to cold by brown adipose tissue in the human body, helps reduce blood sugar. The results of their experiments ...

Diabetes

Discontinuing insulin for older adults with type 2 diabetes

Patients with type 2 diabetes who were in poor health were more likely to continue taking insulin after age 75 than their counterparts in better health, according to Kaiser Permanente research published today in JAMA Internal ...

Neuroscience

How gut bacteria negatively influences blood sugar levels

Millions of people around the world experience serious blood sugar problems which can cause diabetes, but a world first study is revealing how gut bacteria impact the normally feel good hormone serotonin to negatively influence ...

Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is not just about insulin

In Switzerland, more than 400,000 people suffer from type 2 diabetes, a serious metabolic disorder that is constantly increasing. Obesity, by promoting the resistance to the action of insulin—one of the hormones that regulate ...

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Blood sugar

Blood sugar concentration, or glucose level, refers to the amount of glucose present in the blood of a human or animal. Normally, in mammals the blood glucose level is maintained at a reference range between about 3.6 and 5.8 mM (mmol/l). It is tightly regulated as a part of metabolic homeostasis.

Mean normal blood glucose levels in humans are about 90 mg/100ml, equivalent to 5mM (mmol/l) (since the molecular weight of glucose, C6H12O6, is about 180 g/mol). The total amount of glucose normally in circulating human blood is therefore about 3.3 to 7g (assuming an ordinary adult blood volume of 5 litres, plausible for an average adult male). Glucose levels rise after meals for an hour or two by a few grams and are usually lowest in the morning, before the first meal of the day. Transported via the bloodstream from the intestines or liver to body cells, Glucose is the primary source of energy for body's cells, fats and oils (ie, lipids) being primarily a compact energy store.

Failure to maintain blood glucose in the normal range leads to conditions of persistently high (hyperglycemia) or low (hypoglycemia) blood sugar. Diabetes mellitus, characterized by persistent hyperglycemia from any of several causes, is the most prominent disease related to failure of blood sugar regulation.

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