Neuroscience

Exercise activates memory neural networks in older adults

How quickly do we experience the benefits of exercise? A new University of Maryland study of healthy older adults shows that just one session of exercise increased activation in the brain circuits associated with memory—including ...

Neuroscience

Synthetic speech generated from brain recordings

A state-of-the-art brain-machine interface created by UC San Francisco neuroscientists can generate natural-sounding synthetic speech by using brain activity to control a virtual vocal tract—an anatomically detailed computer ...

Psychology & Psychiatry

Stressed, anxious? Ask the brain

Our actions are driven by "internal states" such as anxiety, stress or thirst—which will strongly affect and motivate our behaviors. Not much is known about how such states are represented by complex brain-wide circuits, ...

Psychology & Psychiatry

CBD reduces impairment caused by cannabis

The more cannabidiol (CBD) in a strain of cannabis, the lower the impairment to brain function, finds a new UCL-led brain imaging study.

Psychology & Psychiatry

Anxiety traits are visible in the brain

Questionnaires or concentration tasks can be used to screen for anxiety, but so too can EEG recordings – at least indirectly. The frequent mind wandering of anxious people can also be seen on MRI scans. These are just some ...

Neuroscience

Brain stimulation reverses age-related memory loss

Stimulating a precise location of the brain's memory center with electromagnetic pulses improves the memory of older adults with age-related memory loss to the level of young adults, reports a new Northwestern Medicine study.

Attention deficit disorders

Trigeminal nerve stimulation beats sham tx for peds ADHD

(HealthDay)—Trigeminal nerve stimulation (TNS) showed efficacy when compared with a similar sham procedure for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, according to a double-blind, controlled ...

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Electroencephalography

Electroencephalography (EEG) is the recording of electrical activity along the scalp produced by the firing of neurons within the brain. In clinical contexts, EEG refers to the recording of the brain's spontaneous electrical activity over a short period of time, usually 20–40 minutes, as recorded from multiple electrodes placed on the scalp. In neurology, the main diagnostic application of EEG is in the case of epilepsy, as epileptic activity can create clear abnormalities on a standard EEG study. A secondary clinical use of EEG is in the diagnosis of coma and encephalopathies. EEG used to be a first-line method for the diagnosis of tumors, stroke and other focal brain disorders, but this use has decreased with the advent of anatomical imaging techniques such as MRI and CT.

Derivatives of the EEG technique include evoked potentials (EP), which involves averaging the EEG activity time-locked to the presentation of a stimulus of some sort (visual, somatosensory, or auditory). Event-related potentials refer to averaged EEG responses that are time-locked to more complex processing of stimuli; this technique is used in cognitive science, cognitive psychology, and psychophysiological research.

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