Immunology

The immune system: Knocked off balance

Instead of protecting us, the immune system can sometimes go awry, as in the case of autoimmune diseases and allergies. A Ludwig-Maximilian-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich team has dissected how mast cells regulate their calcium ...

Medical research

Scientists unveil how general anesthesia works

Hailed as one of the most important medical advances, the discovery of general anesthetics—compounds that induce unconsciousness, prevent control of movement and block pain—helped transform dangerous and traumatic operations ...

Cardiology

Widely used blood pressure drugs might put heart at risk

Drugs based on a molecule called dihydropyridine are commonly prescribed by doctors to treat high blood pressure and angina, a chest pain caused by reduced blood flow to the heart. However, there's a chance that these same ...

Neuroscience

Scientists study the effect of mutations of Alzheimer's disease

A team of neurobiologists from Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU) published an article on their study of the causes of Alzheimer's disease and suggested therapy methods. The scientists believe the ...

Medical research

A new pathway for an anti-aging drug

In 1972, Easter Island, called Rapa Nui, famous for its moai statues, offered a new wonder: the discovery of the drug rapamycin.

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Calcium

Calcium (pronounced /ˈkælsiəm/) is the chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. It has an atomic mass of 40.078 amu. Calcium is a soft grey alkaline earth metal, and is the fifth most abundant element by mass in the Earth's crust. Calcium is also the fifth most abundant dissolved ion in seawater by both molarity and mass, after sodium, chloride, magnesium, and sulfate.

Calcium is essential for living organisms, particularly in cell physiology, where movement of the calcium ion Ca2+ into and out of the cytoplasm functions as a signal for many cellular processes. As a major material used in mineralization of bones and shells, calcium is the most abundant metal by mass in many animals.

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