Health

Snacking impacted by smells and tastes

What we smell and taste can trigger substantial changes to food choices later in the day, a University of Otago study has found.

Immunology

Mitochondrial respiratory chain sustains inflammation

Northwestern Medicine investigators recently discovered that the mitochondrial respiratory chain—a series of protein complexes essential for a cellular respiration and energy production—is necessary for the activation ...

Neuroscience

Live monitoring of brain metabolism with fluorescence

Lactate is generated in the body as a byproduct during normal metabolism and exercise. While considered a useless waste product for a long time, recent studies have shown that lactate can be an indicator for cancer and various ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

How herpesviruses awaken

Eight different herpesviruses are known to date in humans. They all settle permanently in the body after acute infection. Under certain circumstances, they wake up from this dormant phase, multiply and attack other cells. ...

Neuroscience

Researchers discover how hormones define brain sex differences

Sex hormones play an important role in shaping an animal's behavior, and their influence starts early. Early-life hormonal surges help shape the developing brain, establishing circuitry that will influence behavior for a ...

Overweight & Obesity

Boosting liver mRNAs curbs appetite, body weight in obese mice

Scientists from The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio (UT Health San Antonio) today reported that inhibiting a liver enzyme in obese mice decreased the rodents' appetite, increased energy expenditure ...

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Energy

In physics, energy (from the Greek ἐνέργεια - energeia, "activity, operation", from ἐνεργός - energos, "active, working") is a scalar physical quantity that describes the amount of work that can be performed by a force, an attribute of objects and systems that is subject to a conservation law. Different forms of energy include kinetic, potential, thermal, gravitational, sound, light, elastic, and electromagnetic energy. The forms of energy are often named after a related force.

Any form of energy can be transformed into another form, but the total energy always remains the same. This principle, the conservation of energy, was first postulated in the early 19th century, and applies to any isolated system. According to Noether's theorem, the conservation of energy is a consequence of the fact that the laws of physics do not change over time.

Although the total energy of a system does not change with time, its value may depend on the frame of reference. For example, a seated passenger in a moving airplane has zero kinetic energy relative to the airplane, but non-zero kinetic energy relative to the Earth.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA