Obstetrics & gynaecology

Discovering a mysterious estrogen's important role in pregnancy

When a woman becomes pregnant, her levels of estriol, one of the three common estrogens that are nearly undetectable before conception, skyrocket. However, scientists never knew what this hormone does or why levels of it ...

Neuroscience

Researchers discover how hormones define brain sex differences

Sex hormones play an important role in shaping an animal's behavior, and their influence starts early. Early-life hormonal surges help shape the developing brain, establishing circuitry that will influence behavior for a ...

Oncology & Cancer

New drug shows promise in treating early-stage breast cancer

Early results from a UCLA-led clinical trial found treating women with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)-negative early breast cancers with a novel type of anti-hormonal ...

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Estrogen receptor

Estrogen receptor refers to a group of receptors that are activated by the hormone 17β-estradiol (estrogen). Two types of estrogen receptor exist: ER which is a member of the nuclear hormone family of intracellular receptors and the estrogen G protein coupled receptor GPR30 (GPER), which is a G-protein coupled receptor. This article refers to the nuclear hormone receptor ER.

The main function of the estrogen receptor is as a DNA binding transcription factor that regulates gene expression. However, the estrogen receptor has additional functions independent of DNA binding.

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