Pediatrics

Women still face barriers to breastfeed at work

Despite the protections in place to support breastfeeding for employees, the burden still falls on working mothers to advocate for the resources they need, according to a new study from the University of Georgia.

Health

Students with intense smartphone use sleep worse

Smartphones play an important role in students their daily lives. The question is whether this smartphone use is that innocent. New research conducted at Ghent University and University of Antwerp (Belgium) suggest it is ...

Surgery

Liposuction benefits women with lipedema

(HealthDay)—Liposuction improves the quality of life for women with lipedema, according to a study published in the December issue of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.

Neuroscience

High fat diet impairs new neuron creation in female mice

A high fat diet limits the birth and growth of new neurons in adult female, but not male, mice, according to new research published in eNeuro. Further research could inspire metabolism-based preventions and treatments for ...

Health

Mice subjected to shift work schedule start developing diabetes

Exposing mice to a light-dark cycle meant to mimic the schedule of human shift workers changes insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in the animals, according to a study published December 18, 2019 in the open-access ...

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Female

Female (♀) is the sex of an organism, or a part of an organism, which produces mobile ova (egg cells). The ova are defined as the larger gametes in a heterogamous reproduction system, while the smaller, usually motile gamete, the spermatozoon, is produced by the male. A female individual cannot reproduce sexually without access to the gametes of a male (an exception is parthenogenesis). Some organisms can reproduce both sexually and asexually.

There is no single genetic mechanism behind sex differences in different species and the existence of two sexes seems to have evolved multiple times independently in different evolutionary lineages. Other than the defining difference in the type of gamete produced, differences between males and females in one lineage cannot always be predicted by differences in another. The concept is not limited to animals; egg cells are produced by chytrids, diatoms, water moulds and land plants, among others. In land plants, female and male designate not only the egg- and sperm-producing organisms and structures, but also the structures of the sporophytes that give rise to male and female plants.

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