Obstetrics & gynaecology

How does diet before and during pregnancy affect your child?

Every mother wants to have the healthiest child she can, and new research shows that the nutritional status of the mother during pregnancy can affect outcomes for the baby—with male and female offspring affected differently.

Cardiology

New 4D imaging may detect poor pumping in deadly heart disease

In a new study published in iScience, Mayo Clinic researchers found that a novel 4D echo imaging method that measures cardiac strain may detect subtle changes in the heart's dysfunction during acute myocarditis, a deadly ...

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Female

Female (♀) is the sex of an organism, or a part of an organism, which produces mobile ova (egg cells). The ova are defined as the larger gametes in a heterogamous reproduction system, while the smaller, usually motile gamete, the spermatozoon, is produced by the male. A female individual cannot reproduce sexually without access to the gametes of a male (an exception is parthenogenesis). Some organisms can reproduce both sexually and asexually.

There is no single genetic mechanism behind sex differences in different species and the existence of two sexes seems to have evolved multiple times independently in different evolutionary lineages. Other than the defining difference in the type of gamete produced, differences between males and females in one lineage cannot always be predicted by differences in another. The concept is not limited to animals; egg cells are produced by chytrids, diatoms, water moulds and land plants, among others. In land plants, female and male designate not only the egg- and sperm-producing organisms and structures, but also the structures of the sporophytes that give rise to male and female plants.

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