Medications

No significant association found for ADHD meds, CVD risk

There seems to be no statistically significant association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, according to a systematic review and meta-analysis published ...

Oncology & Cancer

Risk of uterine diseases, cancers up with tamoxifen treatment

Tamoxifen treatment is associated with increased risk of endometrial hyperplasia, polyps, and carcinoma, as well as other uterine cancers, according to a study published online Nov. 28 in JAMA Network Open.

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Female

Female (♀) is the sex of an organism, or a part of an organism, which produces mobile ova (egg cells). The ova are defined as the larger gametes in a heterogamous reproduction system, while the smaller, usually motile gamete, the spermatozoon, is produced by the male. A female individual cannot reproduce sexually without access to the gametes of a male (an exception is parthenogenesis). Some organisms can reproduce both sexually and asexually.

There is no single genetic mechanism behind sex differences in different species and the existence of two sexes seems to have evolved multiple times independently in different evolutionary lineages. Other than the defining difference in the type of gamete produced, differences between males and females in one lineage cannot always be predicted by differences in another. The concept is not limited to animals; egg cells are produced by chytrids, diatoms, water moulds and land plants, among others. In land plants, female and male designate not only the egg- and sperm-producing organisms and structures, but also the structures of the sporophytes that give rise to male and female plants.

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