Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Study: Lingering COVID symptoms in young, competitive athletes rare

The extent and effects of prolonged symptoms in athletes following COVID-19 infection has been an area of clinical uncertainty. In a new study published in the British Journal of Sports Medicine, a group of researchers led ...

Endocrinology & Metabolism

Research finds higher disease protection in fat cells in females

Research from the University of Cincinnati finds a higher presence of mitochondria in fat tissue in females. The research suggests this provides women protection against obesity and metabolic diseases. The study was published ...

Sports medicine & Kinesiology

Exercise advantages of estrogen in rodent studies

Experts in sex as a biological variable are uncovering the role of estrogen in exercise. The researchers will present their findings virtually at the American Physiological Society's (APS) New Trends in Sex and Gender Medicine ...

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Female

Female (♀) is the sex of an organism, or a part of an organism, which produces mobile ova (egg cells). The ova are defined as the larger gametes in a heterogamous reproduction system, while the smaller, usually motile gamete, the spermatozoon, is produced by the male. A female individual cannot reproduce sexually without access to the gametes of a male (an exception is parthenogenesis). Some organisms can reproduce both sexually and asexually.

There is no single genetic mechanism behind sex differences in different species and the existence of two sexes seems to have evolved multiple times independently in different evolutionary lineages. Other than the defining difference in the type of gamete produced, differences between males and females in one lineage cannot always be predicted by differences in another. The concept is not limited to animals; egg cells are produced by chytrids, diatoms, water moulds and land plants, among others. In land plants, female and male designate not only the egg- and sperm-producing organisms and structures, but also the structures of the sporophytes that give rise to male and female plants.

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