Oncology & Cancer

Shedding light on 100-year-old cancer mystery

For almost a century, scientists have observed a strange behavior in cancer cells: They prefer a less-efficient pathway to produce energy. While normal cells utilize aerobic glycolysis to use glucose to produce 36 energy-storing ...

Oncology & Cancer

Researchers continue to seek strategy for starving brain tumors

In an effort to starve brain cancer cells and put the brakes on tumor development, University of North Carolina Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center researchers blocked the main pathway that brain tumor cells use to convert ...

Oncology & Cancer

Mdm2 suppresses tumors by pulling the plug on glycolysis

Cancer cells have long been known to have higher rates of the energy-generating metabolic pathway known as glycolysis. This enhanced glycolysis, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect, is thought to allow cancer cells to ...

Oncology & Cancer

Study of cancer cell metabolism yields new insights on leukemia

University of Rochester Medical Center scientists have proposed a new reason why acute myeloid leukemia, one of the most aggressive cancers, is so difficult to cure: a subset of cells that drive the disease appear to have ...

Oncology & Cancer

Protein controlling glucose metabolism also a tumor suppressor

A protein known to regulate how cells process glucose also appears to be a tumor suppressor, adding to the potential that therapies directed at cellular metabolism may help suppress tumor growth. In their report in the Dec. ...

Other

Metabolic patterns of propofol, sevoflurane differ in children

(HealthDay)—For children undergoing routine anesthesia for medically indicated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the metabolic signature varies with use of sevoflurane and propofol, according to a study published in the ...

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Glycolysis

Glycolysis (from glycose, an older term for glucose + -lysis degradation) is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+. The free energy released in this process is used to form the high-energy compounds ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and NADH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide).

Glycolysis is a definite sequence of ten reactions involving ten intermediate compounds (one of the steps involves two intermediates). The intermediates provide entry points to glycolysis. For example, most monosaccharides, such as fructose, glucose, and galactose, can be converted to one of these intermediates. The intermediates may also be directly useful. For example, the intermediate dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) is a source of the glycerol that combines with fatty acids to form fat.

It occurs, with variations, in nearly all organisms, both aerobic and anaerobic. The wide occurrence of glycolysis indicates that it is one of the most ancient known metabolic pathways.

The most common type of glycolysis is the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway (EMP pathway), which was first discovered by Gustav Embden, Otto Meyerhof and Jakub Karol Parnas. Glycolysis also refers to other pathways, such as the Entner–Doudoroff pathway and various heterofermentative and homofermentative pathways. However, the discussion here will be limited to the Embden-Meyerhof pathway.

The entire glycolysis pathway can be separated into two phases:

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