Immunology

'Natural immunity' from omicron is weak and limited, study finds

In unvaccinated people, infection with the omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 provides little long-term immunity against other variants, according to a new study by researchers at Gladstone Institutes and UC San Francisco (UCSF), ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Kidney protein as potential target for treating autoimmune diseases

Approximately 23.5 million people in the U.S. have an autoimmune disease, and some studies suggest that number could be rising. New research using a mouse model for multiple sclerosis has uncovered a potential new area to ...

Neuroscience

Choroid plexus volume linked to Alzheimer's disease

Increased volume of an important structure in the brain called the choroid plexus is linked to greater cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease, according to a new study published in the journal Radiology.

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Dynamics of adaptive immunity in tuberculosis uncovered

Unlike other infectious diseases that affect the lungs, the immune response to fight tuberculosis (TB) infections develops at least twice as slowly. Until recently, the dynamic interplay between bacteria and the host's immune ...

Immunology

Next-gen vaccines set to maintain immunity as the years advance

Vaccine potency drops in the elderly and little is known about why this happens. Now, European scientists are on a mission to understand waning immunity and to develop strategies that make vaccines work effectively in all ...

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Immunity (medical)

Immunity is a biological term that describes a state of having sufficient biological defenses to avoid infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion. Immunity involves both specific and non-specific components. The non-specific components act either as barriers or as eliminators of wide range of pathogens irrespective of antigenic specificity. Other components of the immune system adapt themselves to each new disease encountered and are able to generate pathogen-specific immunity.

Adaptive immunity is often sub-divided into two major types depending on how the immunity was introduced. Naturally acquired immunity occurs through contact with a disease causing agent, when the contact was not deliberate, whereas artificially acquired immunity develops only through deliberate actions such as vaccination. Both naturally and artificially acquired immunity can be further subdivided depending on whether immunity is induced in the host or passively transferred from a immune host. Passive immunity is acquired through transfer of antibodies or activated T-cells from an immune host, and is short lived, usually lasts only a few months, whereas active immunity is induced in the host itself by antigen, and lasts much longer, sometimes life-long. The diagram below summarizes these divisions of immunity.

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