Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Study reveals how fungal biofilm structure impacts lung disease

Findings from an innovative new study led by researchers at Dartmouth's Geisel School of Medicine and published this week in Nature Microbiology reveal that the way in which human fungal pathogens form colonies can significantly ...

Medical research

Scientists enlist tiny biomagnets for faster drug discovery

What started as a hallway conversation between colleagues is now an "engine for the discovery of new therapeutic targets in cells" thanks to Medicine by Design, says Shana Kelley, a University Professor in the Leslie Dan ...

Genetics

Scientists hone in on DNA differences behind immune diseases

Scientists are one step closer to discovering the causes of immune diseases such as asthma, multiple sclerosis and arthritis. Research from the Wellcome Sanger Institute, GSK and Biogen, under the Open Targets initiative, ...

Oncology & Cancer

Ancient viruses could help kill cancers

DNA "echoes" of viruses that infected our ancestors millions of years ago could help the immune system to identify and kill cancer cells, according to new research from Crick scientists.

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Philippines confirms 2nd polio case after declaring outbreak

Philippine health officials on Friday confirmed a second case of polio in a 5-year-old child a day after declaring the country's first outbreak in nearly two decades, and announced plans for a massive immunization program.

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Clinically silent relapsing malaria may still pose a threat

Nonhuman primates with clinically undetectable Plasmodium relapse infections still harbor parasitic gametocytes that may be infectious to mosquitoes, according to a study published September 19 in the open-access journal ...

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Immunity (medical)

Immunity is a biological term that describes a state of having sufficient biological defenses to avoid infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion. Immunity involves both specific and non-specific components. The non-specific components act either as barriers or as eliminators of wide range of pathogens irrespective of antigenic specificity. Other components of the immune system adapt themselves to each new disease encountered and are able to generate pathogen-specific immunity.

Adaptive immunity is often sub-divided into two major types depending on how the immunity was introduced. Naturally acquired immunity occurs through contact with a disease causing agent, when the contact was not deliberate, whereas artificially acquired immunity develops only through deliberate actions such as vaccination. Both naturally and artificially acquired immunity can be further subdivided depending on whether immunity is induced in the host or passively transferred from a immune host. Passive immunity is acquired through transfer of antibodies or activated T-cells from an immune host, and is short lived, usually lasts only a few months, whereas active immunity is induced in the host itself by antigen, and lasts much longer, sometimes life-long. The diagram below summarizes these divisions of immunity.

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