Cancer

Precision oncology insights revealed for colorectal cancer

Next-generation sequencing of tumor DNA from patients with colorectal cancer revealed genetic alterations that were linked to different survival and treatment outcomes in an analysis led by a University of North Carolina ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

New potential approach to treat atopic dermatitis

How does the immune system respond to fungi on our skin? Researchers at the University of Zurich have demonstrated that the same immune cells that protect us against skin fungi also encourage the inflammatory symptoms of ...

Inflammatory disorders

'Inflamm-aging' causes loss of bone healing ability in the elderly

Increases in chronic inflammation—not the passage of time—is the main reason why injured bones do not heal as well with age. This is the finding of a study in mice and humans published March 18 in the Proceedings of the ...

Immunology

New proof that narcolepsy is an autoimmune disease

Researchers from the University of Copenhagen have discovered autoreactive cells in persons suffering from narcolepsy. This is a new, important proof that the sleep disorder is an autoimmune disease. This knowledge may lead ...

Immunology

Meningitis changes immune cell makeup in the mouse brain lining

Meningitis, a group of serious diseases which infect the brain's lining, leaves its mark and can affect the body's ability to fight such infections in the future. According to a new study published in Nature Immunology, infections ...

Immunology

Protective antibodies also found in premature babies

Even premature babies carry anti-viral antibodies transferred from the mother, researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden report in a paper on maternal antibodies in newborns, published in the journal Nature Medicine. ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Solution sought to 'sticky' staph situation

David Heinrichs faces a potentially deadly adversary found on the skin of almost 30 per cent of the population – and the battle just got a whole lot stickier.

Cancer

The story of GARP: a potential target for cancer immunotherapy

Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in both men and women. Despite significant advances in therapies for this particular cancer, the five-year survival rate is 12 percent, according to the ...

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Immunity (medical)

Immunity is a biological term that describes a state of having sufficient biological defenses to avoid infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion. Immunity involves both specific and non-specific components. The non-specific components act either as barriers or as eliminators of wide range of pathogens irrespective of antigenic specificity. Other components of the immune system adapt themselves to each new disease encountered and are able to generate pathogen-specific immunity.

Adaptive immunity is often sub-divided into two major types depending on how the immunity was introduced. Naturally acquired immunity occurs through contact with a disease causing agent, when the contact was not deliberate, whereas artificially acquired immunity develops only through deliberate actions such as vaccination. Both naturally and artificially acquired immunity can be further subdivided depending on whether immunity is induced in the host or passively transferred from a immune host. Passive immunity is acquired through transfer of antibodies or activated T-cells from an immune host, and is short lived, usually lasts only a few months, whereas active immunity is induced in the host itself by antigen, and lasts much longer, sometimes life-long. The diagram below summarizes these divisions of immunity.

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