Neuroscience

Team develops first of a kind in-vitro 3-D neural tissue model

Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have successfully used stem cells to engineer living biohybrid nerve tissue to develop 3-D models of neural networks with the hopes of gaining a better understanding ...

Genetics

Percentage of African ancestry affects gene expression

The percentage of African ancestry in a person's genome determines the level that certain genes are expressed, called mRNA, according to a new Northwestern Medicine study. The discovery could offer insight into the different ...

Neuroscience

Protein movement in cells hints at greater mysteries

A new imaging technique that makes it possible to match motor proteins with the cargo they carry within a cell is upending a standard view of how cellular traffic reaches the correct destination. The research, which focuses ...

Medical research

Protein research: Supposed disorder is not disorder after all

Many, but not all, proteins in a living cell have a defined three-dimensional structure. The interrelationship between the structure and function of proteins is the focus of many research initiatives that extend to the development ...

Medical research

To assess a cell's health, follow the glucose

A new spectroscopic technique reveals that glucose use in live cells provides valuable information about the functional status of cells, tissues, and organs. Shifts in a cell's use of glucose can signal changes in health ...

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Cell (biology)

The cell is the structural and functional unit of all known living organisms. It is the smallest unit of an organism that is classified as living, and is often called the building block of life. Some organisms, such as most bacteria, are unicellular (consist of a single cell). Other organisms, such as humans, are multicellular. (Humans have an estimated 100 trillion or 1014 cells; a typical cell size is 10 µm; a typical cell mass is 1 nanogram.) The largest known cell is an unfertilized ostrich egg cell.

In 1835 before the final cell theory was developed, a Czech Jan Evangelista Purkyně observed small "granules" while looking at the plant tissue through a microscope. The cell theory, first developed in 1839 by Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann, states that all organisms are composed of one or more cells. All cells come from preexisting cells. Vital functions of an organism occur within cells, and all cells contain the hereditary information necessary for regulating cell functions and for transmitting information to the next generation of cells.

The word cell comes from the Latin cellula, meaning, a small room. The descriptive name for the smallest living biological structure was chosen by Robert Hooke in a book he published in 1665 when he compared the cork cells he saw through his microscope to the small rooms monks lived in.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA