Medical research

Keeping bone in its place

Heterotopic ossification (HO) is the formation of bone within soft tissue such as muscle, leading to pain and potentially the inability to use a limb. Once thought to be primarily a genetic disease, the cause of most trauma-induced ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Anti-TB drugs can increase risk of TB re-infection

Current treatments for tuberculosis (TB) are very effective in controlling TB infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). They don't, however, always prevent reinfection. Why this happens is one of the long-standing ...

Cancer

Inside a tumor: Purple bacteria visualize 'big eaters'

Cancer presents an ongoing challenge for physicians, particularly in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. This is due to tumor heterogeneity, among other things. A team of scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, ...

Immunology

Molecular clock influences immune cell responses

Scientists have recently recognized that cells of the same type can behave differently in response to stimulation. In a new study, Yale researchers have shown how these varied responses are due in part to a desynchronized ...

Immunology

Stopping inflammation from becoming chronic

An international research team led by Friedrich Schiller University in Jena has developed a highly sensitive cell model to study the complex effects – and side effects – of anti-inflammatory drugs, with the ultimate aim ...

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Macrophage

Macrophages (Greek: big eaters, from makros "large" + phagein "eat"; abbr. ) are white blood cells within tissues, produced by the division of monocytes. Human macrophages are about 21 micrometres in diameter. Monocytes and macrophages are phagocytes, acting in both non-specific defense (or innate immunity) as well as to help initiate specific defense mechanisms (or adaptive immunity) of vertebrate animals. Their role is to phagocytose (engulf and then digest) cellular debris and pathogens either as stationary or as mobile cells, and to stimulate lymphocytes and other immune cells to respond to the pathogen. They can be identified by specific expression of a number of proteins including CD14, CD11b, F4/80 (mice)/EMR1 (human), Lysozyme M, MAC-1/MAC-3 and CD68 by flow cytometry or immunohistochemical staining. They move by action of Amoeboid movement.

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