Oncology & Cancer

Shedding new light on the origin of metastases

Before an effective treatment can be devised, researchers have to understand the specific effect of an anti-cancer substance on the cell type, or even the cell, that produces metastases in the enormous cellular heterogeneity ...

Oncology & Cancer

Cancer researchers locate drivers of tumor resistance

Cancer biologists at the Mays Cancer Center, home to UT Health San Antonio MD Anderson, have identified important drivers that enable tumors to change their behavior and evade anticancer therapies.

Genetics

Team publishes findings on TAF1 syndrome

An international, multidisciplinary research team from more than 50 institutions, led by geneticist and psychiatrist Gholson Lyon, MD, Ph.D., of the New York State Office for People With Developmental Disabilities' (OPWDD) ...

Cardiology

AI maps routes to heart disease

A new study in the Journal of Biomedical Informatics uses machine learning on unlabeled electronic health record (EHR) data to shed light on the emergence of cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Database to support infectious disease research

A new database PathoPhenoDB facilitates the search for associations between infectious diseases, the pathogens that cause them, the resulting clinical signs and symptoms, and the drugs that can treat them. It also contains ...

Obstetrics & gynaecology

Narrowing risk of preeclampsia to a specific phenotype

The force of blood traveling through your arteries and veins determines much of your heart health. High blood pressure can lead to heart disease, heart failure, heart attack, stroke and chronic kidney disease, and when it's ...

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Phenotype

A phenotype is an organism's observable characteristics or traits: such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest). Phenotypes result from the expression of an organism's genes as well as the influence of environmental factors and the interactions between the two.

The genotype of an organism is the inherited instructions it carries within its genetic code. Not all organisms with the same genotype look or act the same way because appearance and behavior are modified by environmental and developmental conditions. Similarly, not all organisms that look alike necessarily have the same genotype.

This genotype-phenotype distinction was proposed by Wilhelm Johannsen in 1911 to make clear the difference between an organism's heredity and what that heredity produces. The distinction is similar to that proposed by August Weismann, who distinguished between germ plasm (heredity) and somatic cells (the body). The Genotype-Phenotype concept should not be confused with Francis Crick's central dogma of molecular biology which is a statement about the directionality of molecular sequential information flowing from DNA to protein (but which cannot become transferred from proteins).

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