Psychology & Psychiatry

Giving zebrafish psychotropic drugs to train AI algorithms

Neuroscientists from St. Petersburg University, led by Professor Allan V. Kalueff, in collaboration with an international team of IT specialists, have become the first in the world to apply the artificial intelligence (AI) ...

Genetics

Are you physically less likely to become infected with COVID-19?

Three newly-defined phenotypes (observable characteristics or traits for an individual) that capture genetic associations which may provide protection against SARS-CoV-2, are presented in a study published in Nature Genetics. ...

Medical research

Researchers identify ways to limit transferred cancer growth

Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a key driver behind malignant cancer progression, are self-renewing, highly metastatic and therapeutically resistant. As cancer progresses, cancer cells display a phenotypic plasticity between the ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

COVID-19 patients can be categorized into three groups

In a new study, researchers identify three clinical COVID-19 phenotypes, reflecting patient populations with different comorbidities, complications and clinical outcomes. The three phenotypes are described in a paper published ...

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Phenotype

A phenotype is an organism's observable characteristics or traits: such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest). Phenotypes result from the expression of an organism's genes as well as the influence of environmental factors and the interactions between the two.

The genotype of an organism is the inherited instructions it carries within its genetic code. Not all organisms with the same genotype look or act the same way because appearance and behavior are modified by environmental and developmental conditions. Similarly, not all organisms that look alike necessarily have the same genotype.

This genotype-phenotype distinction was proposed by Wilhelm Johannsen in 1911 to make clear the difference between an organism's heredity and what that heredity produces. The distinction is similar to that proposed by August Weismann, who distinguished between germ plasm (heredity) and somatic cells (the body). The Genotype-Phenotype concept should not be confused with Francis Crick's central dogma of molecular biology which is a statement about the directionality of molecular sequential information flowing from DNA to protein (but which cannot become transferred from proteins).

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