Oncology & Cancer

Potential new cancer treatment a step closer

QIMR Berghofer researchers have discovered a potential new cancer immunotherapy target that involves switching off a regulatory cell to stop tumors growing and spreading.

Radiology & Imaging

Machine learning, imaging technique may boost colon cancer diagnosis

Colorectal cancer is the second most common type of cancer worldwide, with about 90 percent of cases occurring in people 50 or older. Arising from the inner surface, or muscosal layer, of the colon, cancerous cells can penetrate ...

Immunology

What protects killer immune cells from harming themselves?

White blood cells, which release a toxic potion of proteins to kill cancerous and virus-infected cells, are protected from any harm by the physical properties of their cell envelopes, find scientists from UCL and the Peter ...

Medical research

Cellular calpain proteases can cleave the enteroviral polyprotein

Enteroviruses are small, non-enveloped RNA viruses, which belong to the family of picornaviruses. Although most of the diseases that enteroviruses cause are symptomless or mild, enteroviruses are the most common viruses infecting ...

Oncology & Cancer

Discovery: New biomarker for cancer stem cells

In the world of cancer biology, not all biomarkers are created equal. These molecules that alert doctors that an abnormal process may be underway can appear as an array of aberrant proteins, such as hormones, enzymes or signaling ...

Medical research

Orthopedic surgery advances: The screw that dissolves

Where bones fracture, surgeons often have to join the fragments with implants. Magnesium orthopedic screws, which over time dissolve in the body, spare patients another operation after healing is completed and reduce the ...

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Surface

In mathematics, specifically in topology, a surface is a two-dimensional topological manifold. The most familiar examples are those that arise as the boundaries of solid objects in ordinary three-dimensional Euclidean space R3 — for example, the surface of a ball or bagel. On the other hand, there are surfaces which cannot be embedded in three-dimensional Euclidean space without introducing singularities or intersecting itself — these are the unorientable surfaces.

To say that a surface is "two-dimensional" means that, about each point, there is a coordinate patch on which a two-dimensional coordinate system is defined. For example, the surface of the Earth is (ideally) a two-dimensional sphere, and latitude and longitude provide coordinates on it — except at the International Date Line and the poles, where longitude is undefined. This example illustrates that not all surfaces admits a single coordinate patch. In general, multiple coordinate patches are needed to cover a surface.

Surfaces find application in physics, engineering, computer graphics, and many other disciplines, primarily when they represent the surfaces of physical objects. For example, in analyzing the aerodynamic properties of an airplane, the central consideration is the flow of air along its surface.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, licensed under CC BY-SA