Research shows temptation more powerful than individuals realize

Whether it's highlighted in major news headlines about Argentinean affairs and Ponzi schemes, or in personal battles with obesity and drug addiction, individuals regularly succumb to greed, lust and self-destructive behaviors. New research from the Kellogg School of Management examines why this is the case, and demonstrates that individuals believe they have more restraint than they actually possess--ultimately leading to poor decision-making.

The study, led by Loran Nordgren, senior lecturer of management and organizations at the Kellogg School, examined how an individual's belief in his/her ability to control impulses such as greed, drug craving and sexual arousal influenced responses to . The research found the sample, on average, displayed a "restraint bias," causing individuals to miscalculate the amount of temptation they could truly handle, in turn leading to a greater likelihood of indulging impulsive or .

"People are not good at anticipating the power of their urges, and those who are the most confident about their self-control are the most likely to give into temptation," said Nordgren. "The key is simply to avoid any situations where vices and other weaknesses thrive and, most importantly, for individuals to keep a humble view of their willpower."

In developing their case, the study's authors cited previous research demonstrating that people often have difficulty appreciating the power of impulsive states. People in a "cold state" (not experiencing hunger, anger, sexual arousal, etc.) tend to underestimate how a "hot," impulsive state will influence their behavior. To expand upon these findings, the study authors set out to test whether:

  • People in a cold, non-impulsive state will overestimate their ability to control impulses
  • People in a hot, impulsive state will have a more realistic view of their capacity for impulse control
  • People who perceive they have a high capacity for impulse control will expose themselves to more temptation and will ultimately exhibit more impulsive behavior
To test their hypotheses, the researchers conducted four experiments focusing on hunger, addiction and mental fatigue. Each experiment resulted in significant "restraint bias."

For example, one experiment focused on cigarette addiction found those who overestimated their capacity for self-control were much more likely to smoke a cigarette after simply watching a movie about smoking. Another experiment centered on hunger. Results found a satiated group was significantly less likely to return snacks than a hungry group who limited their temptation by choosing less appealing snacks.

"A system which assumes people will control themselves is going to fall prey to this restraint bias; we expose ourselves to more temptation than is wise, and subsequently we have millions of people suffering with obesity, addictions and other unhealthy lifestyles," said Nordgren. "And, while our study focused on personal behaviors like smoking and eating, it is easy to apply our findings to a broader context. Understanding the power of temptation, you might also ask about the extent to which we need oversight or regulatory guidelines for business and political leaders."

Furthermore, this research suggests observers should think twice before judging those who fall prey to temptation because most people overestimate their capacity to control their own impulses, Nordgren concluded.

More information: The study will appear in an upcoming issue of Psychological Science.

Source: Association for Psychological Science (news : web)

Citation: Research shows temptation more powerful than individuals realize (2009, August 3) retrieved 23 May 2019 from
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User comments

Aug 03, 2009
You only live once.

Aug 03, 2009
That's what I think too. But being a subject - you never know what exactly is outside the subject. You can only guess it. This means that all our judgment about the world - is just assumptions, and there is no guaranty, that they are true.

Aug 03, 2009
I suggest that your genes decide what you like or dislike. they also decide whether you get cancer or not. They decide whether you become addicted or not.
My father smoked like a trooper. He died aged 96 of natural causes. My sister died of cancer, aged 59. She never smoked or drank alcohol. It is in your deciding genes.

Aug 03, 2009
This article appears to reinforce the Buddhist teaching of avoiding temptation and not letting one's mental state ever become 'hot' as described.

Aug 03, 2009
@EvgenijM - guarantee*.

At everyone else... The only way to control it is to be at an extreme of control and polarize to a view. I.e make the rules ahead of time instead of being fuzzy. And make sure pick an exact side given your leanings. You might well be able to pick the right side, but to do with that power is an act on intention and requires you to pay very close attention to things.

Aug 04, 2009
I was tempted to comment, but restrained myself.

Aug 04, 2009
"you might also ask about the extent to which we need oversight or regulatory guidelines for business and political leaders."

So we should take the temptation away by force?

Those without self control should be allowed to grow fat, unhealthy, and unattractive. Freedom breeds intelligence.

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