Transfusion rates vary extremely in cardiac bypass surgery

October 12, 2010

Transfusion rates for blood products used in a common heart surgery range from no patients to nearly all patients, and vary by hospital, according to findings from a group of researchers from Duke University Medical Center. The study, which looked at data from 102,470 patients in 798 hospitals, examined the variation in transfusion rates for red blood cells (RBCs), plasma and platelets, but the team didn't reach conclusions about how well patients fared if they did or didn't get a transfusion.

"We don't know whether the variability is potentially harming patients," said lead author Elliott Bennett-Guerrero, M.D., director of Perioperative Clinical Research at Duke Clinical Research Institute and Professor of Anesthesiology/Critical Care. "Even if more liberal transfusion is not harmful to patients, it may represent a significant waste of scarce resources and money."

The researchers didn't find any link between patient after surgery and whether the hospital was a high-transfusion site or a low-transfusion site, Bennett-Guerrero said.

The work was published in the (JAMA) online on Oct. 12.

"To our knowledge there has never been a published large randomized trial in surgical patients looking at the impact of blood transfusion to determine whether we should be more restrictive or liberal with these transfusions," Bennett-Guerrero said. "Despite the fact that we spend billions of dollars on health care and research, we spend comparatively little on clinical effectiveness trials, which are gaining recognition as an informed way to change clinical practice."

Even when centers performing fewer operations were excluded, the researchers found that transfusion rates among the patients at hospitals ranged from 7.8 percent to 92.8 percent for , 0 percent to 97.5 percent for fresh-frozen plasma, and 0.4 percent to 90.4 percent for platelets. The average cost of a unit of RBCs including direct and indirect costs was $761 in a 2010 study published in Transfusion journal.

The team, which included researchers from other institutions, found variation in RBC use based on geographic region, as well as higher RBC usage at academic hospitals and hospitals that performed the fewest number of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) operations. Taken together, however, these three characteristics only accounted for 11.1 percent of variation in red-blood cell use.

The research team assessed data from the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) Adult Cardiac Surgery Database kept by the Duke Clinical Research Institute, which captures clinical information from the majority of U.S. cardiac surgical procedures (up to 80 percent of all surgical data available).

The patients included in the study all had the same operation, a first-time, isolated coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), and all were on a heart-lung pump during surgery.

Differences in surgical techniques may help explain some of the variability. "There is a reasonable chance that some patients are getting transfused more because they are bleeding more during surgery, which could be linked to differences in surgical technique among the doctors," Bennett-Guerrero said.

Another likely difference is simply the transfusion culture at an institution. This may also have to do with early medical education and training, as some institutions pass along a pro-transfusion culture to those in training, he said.

Largely circumstantial evidence suggests excessive for a patient may be harmful, Bennett Guerrero says. Everyone agrees that transfusion is needed when an injured person has lost most of their blood or has severe anemia. "It is difficult to get agreement, however, in situations where the patient has moderate blood loss or anemia," he said. "No one has yet proven that more liberal transfusion is harmful, and in the absence of results from high-quality randomized clinical studies, it is not surprising that there is variation in transfusion rates."

More information: JAMA. 2010;304[14]:1568-1575.

Related Stories

Recommended for you

Female researchers pay more attention to sex and gender in medicine

November 7, 2017
When women participate in a medical research paper, that research is more likely to take into account the differences between the way men and women react to diseases and treatments, according to a new study by Stanford researchers.

Drug therapy from lethal bacteria could reduce kidney transplant rejection

August 3, 2017
An experimental treatment derived from a potentially deadly microorganism may provide lifesaving help for kidney transplant patients, according to an international study led by investigators at Cedars-Sinai.

Exploring the potential of human echolocation

June 25, 2017
People who are visually impaired will often use a cane to feel out their surroundings. With training and practice, people can learn to use the pitch, loudness and timbre of echoes from the cane or other sounds to navigate ...

Team eradicates hepatitis C in 10 patients following lifesaving transplants from infected donors

April 30, 2017
Ten patients at Penn Medicine have been cured of the Hepatitis C virus (HCV) following lifesaving kidney transplants from deceased donors who were infected with the disease. The findings point to new strategies for increasing ...

'bench to bedside to bench': Scientists call for closer basic-clinical collaborations

March 24, 2017
In the era of genome sequencing, it's time to update the old "bench-to-bedside" shorthand for how basic research discoveries inform clinical practice, researchers from The Jackson Laboratory (JAX), National Human Genome Research ...

The ethics of tracking athletes' biometric data

January 18, 2017
(Medical Xpress)—Whether it is a FitBit or a heart rate monitor, biometric technologies have become household devices. Professional sports leagues use some of the most technologically advanced biodata tracking systems to ...

0 comments

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.