Discovery of immune cells that protect against multiple sclerosis offers hope for new treatment

August 16, 2012, Cell Press

In multiple sclerosis, the immune system attacks nerves in the brain and spinal cord, causing movement problems, muscle weakness and loss of vision. Immune cells called dendritic cells, which were previously thought to contribute to the onset and development of multiple sclerosis, actually protect against the disease in a mouse model, according to a study published by Cell Press in the August issue of the journal Immunity. These new insights change our fundamental understanding of the origins of multiple sclerosis and could lead to the development of more effective treatments for the disease.

"By transfusing dendritic cells into the blood, it may be possible to reduce autoimmunity," says senior study author Ari Waisman of University Medical Center of Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz. "Beyond multiple sclerosis, I can easily imagine that this approach could be applied to other , such as and psoriasis."

In an animal model of multiple sclerosis known as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), called trigger the disease after being activated by other immune cells called antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Dendritic cells are APCs capable of activating T cells, but it was not known whether dendritic cells are the APCs that induce EAE.

In the new study, Waisman and his team used genetic methods to deplete dendritic cells in mice. Unexpectedly, these mice were still susceptible to EAE and developed worse autoimmune responses and disease clinical scores, suggesting that dendritic cells are not required to induce EAE and other APCs stimulate T cells to trigger the disease. The researchers also found that dendritic cells reduce the responsiveness of T cells and lower susceptibility to EAE by increasing the expression of PD-1 receptors on T cells.

"Removing dendritic cells tips the balance toward T cell-mediated autoimmunity," says study author Nir Yogev of University Medical Center of Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz. "Our findings suggest that dendritic cells keep immunity under check, so transferring dendritic cells to patients with multiple sclerosis could cure defects in T cells and serve as an effective intervention for the disease."

Explore further: Skin sentry cells promote distinct immune responses

More information: Yogev et al.: "Dendritic Cells Ameliorate Autoimmunity in the CNS by Controlling the Homeostasis of PD-1 Receptor+ Regulatory T Cells."
dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2012.05.025

Related Stories

Skin sentry cells promote distinct immune responses

July 21, 2011
A new study reveals that just as different soldiers in the field have different jobs, subsets of a type of immune cell that polices the barriers of the body can promote unique and opposite immune responses against the same ...

How excess alcohol depresses immune function

August 16, 2011
Alcoholism suppresses the immune system, resulting in a high risk of serious, and even life-threatening infections. A new study shows that this effect stems largely from alcohol’s toxicity to immune system cells called ...

Recommended for you

A bad influence—the interplay between tumor cells and immune cells

October 16, 2018
Research at Huntsman Cancer Institute (HCI) at the University of Utah (U of U) yielded new insights into the environment surrounding different types of lung tumors, and described how these complex cell ecosystems may in turn ...

Function of neutrophils during tumor progression unraveled

October 15, 2018
Researchers at The Wistar Institute have characterized the function of neutrophils, a type of white blood cells, during early stages of tumor progression, showing that they migrate from the bone marrow to distant sites and ...

Immune health maintained by meticulously ordered DNA

October 15, 2018
Walter and Eliza Hall Institute researchers have revealed how immune health is maintained by the exquisite organisation skills of a protein called Pax5.

New immunotherapy targeting blood-clotting protein

October 15, 2018
Normally, the blood protein fibrin does not enter the brain. But in several neurological disorders, the blood-brain barrier—which keeps large molecules in the blood from entering the brain—becomes abnormally permeable, ...

Enzyme that triggers autoimmune responses from T-cells in patients with MS found

October 11, 2018
A team of researchers from Switzerland, the U.S. and Spain has isolated an enzyme that triggers an autoimmune response from T-cells in patients with MS. In their paper published in the journal Science Translational Medicine, ...

Scientists reveal new cystic fibrosis treatments work best in inflamed airways

October 11, 2018
A new UNC School of Medicine study shows that two cystic fibrosis (CF) drugs aimed at correcting the defected CFTR protein seem to be more effective when a patient's airway is inflamed. This is the first study to evaluate ...

0 comments

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.