Stem cells found in gum tissue can fight inflammatory disease

August 5, 2013

Stem cells found in mouth tissue can not only become other types of cells but can also relieve inflammatory disease, according to a new Ostrow School of Dentistry of USC study in the Journal of Dental Research.

The cells featured in the study are gingival (GMSC), which are found in the gingiva, or , within the mouth. GMSC, like other stem cells, have the ability to develop into different types of cells as well as affect the immune system.

"Gingiva is very unique in our body," says Professor Songtao Shi, the study's senior author. "It has much less inflammatory reaction and heals much faster when compared to skin."

Previously, the developmental origins and abilities of GMSC hadn't been fully illustrated. This study shows that there are two types of GMSC: those that arise from the mesoderm layer of cells during (M-GMSC) and those that come from cranial neural crest cells (N-GMSC). The cranial develop into many important structures of the head and face, and 90 percent of the gingival stem cells were found to be N-GMSC.

The two types of stem cells vary dramatically in their abilities. N-GMSC were not only easier to change into other types of cells, including neural and cartilage-producing cells; they also had much more of a healing effect on inflammatory disease than their counterparts. When the N-GMSC were transplanted into mice with dextrate -induced colitis – an inflamed condition of the colon – the inflammation was significantly reduced.

The study indicates that the stem cells in the gingiva – obtained via a simple biopsy of the gums – may have important medical applications in the future.

"We will further work on dissecting the details of the gingiva stem cells, especially their notable immunoregulatory property," says first author Xingtian Xu, specialized lab technician at the Ostrow School of Dentistry Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology.

"Through the study of this unique oral tissue, we want to shed the light on the translational applications for improving skin wound healing and reducing scar formation."

Explore further: New research suggests that gingival stem cells can be used in tissue regeneration

Related Stories

New research suggests that gingival stem cells can be used in tissue regeneration

July 18, 2013
The International and American Associations for Dental Research (IADR/AADR) published a paper titled "Gingivae Contain Neural-crest- and Mesoderm-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells." The paper, written by lead author Songtao ...

Tracking nanodiamond-tagged stem cells

August 5, 2013
A method that is used to track the fate of a single stem cell within mouse lung tissue is reported in a study published online this week in Nature Nanotechnology. The method may offer insights into the factors that determine ...

Stem cells in urine easy to isolate and have potential for numerous therapies

July 31, 2013
Could harvesting stem cells for therapy one day be as simple as asking patients for a urine sample? Researchers at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center's Institute for Regenerative Medicine and colleagues have identified stem ...

Recipient's immune system governs stem cell regeneration

November 20, 2011
A new study in Nature Medicine describes how different types of immune system T-cells alternately discourage and encourage stem cells to regrow bone and tissue, bringing into sharp focus the importance of the transplant recipient's ...

Boning up: Researchers find home of best stem cells for bone marrow transplants

August 1, 2013
McMaster University researchers have revealed the location of human blood stem cells that may improve bone marrow transplants. The best stem cells are at the ends of the bone.

Recommended for you

Understanding genetic synergy in cleft palate

July 19, 2017
Like all of the individual elements of fetal development, palate growth is a marvel of nature. In part of this process, ledges of tissue on the sides of the face grow downwards on each side of the tongue, then upward, fusing ...

Use of prefabricated blood vessels may revolutionize root canals

June 12, 2017
While root canals are effective in saving a tooth that has become infected or decayed, this age-old procedure may cause teeth to become brittle and susceptible to fracture over time. Now researchers at OHSU in Portland, Oregon, ...

Recreational cannabis, used often, increases risk of gum disease

May 24, 2017
Columbia University dental researchers have found that frequent recreational use of cannabis—including marijuana, hashish, and hash oil—increases the risk of gum disease.

Grape seed extract could extend life of resin fillings

May 9, 2017
A natural compound found in grape seed extract could be used to strengthen dentin—the tissue beneath a tooth's enamel—and increase the life of resin fillings, according to new research at the University of Illinois at ...

Crooked bite may indicate early life stress

April 13, 2017
Research has repeatedly confirmed that the first 1,000 days after conception strongly influence a person's life expectancy and susceptibility to chronic diseases. The primary marker used to identify early life stress is low ...

New study identifies successful method to reduce dental implant failure

March 24, 2017
According to the American Academy of Implant Dentistry (AAID), 15 million Americans have crown or bridge replacements and three million have dental implants—with this latter number rising by 500,000 a year. The AAID estimates ...

0 comments

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.