Molecular signature of heart attack predicts longer-term outcomes

April 2, 2014 by Quinn Eastman
Molecular signature of heart attack predicts longer-term outcomes
How do doctors know whether someone is really having a heart attack? At Emory, this is defined by the “Acute Coronary Syndrome Protocol”. Briefly, it’s a combination of information from the patient’s experience (chest pain), electrocardiography and levels of troponin, a blood marker of damage to the heart muscle.

(Medical Xpress)—A molecular signature seen in blood from patients who are experiencing an acute heart attack may also predict the risk of cardiovascular death over the next few years, Emory researchers have found.

The results were presented Monday at the American College of Cardiology meeting in Washington DC by cardiovascular research fellow Nima Ghasemzadeh, MD. Ghasemzadeh is working with Arshed Quyyumi, MD, director of Emory's Clinical Cardiovascular Research Center, as well as Greg Gibson, PhD, director of the Integrative Genomics Center at Georgia Tech.

Ghasemzadeh and colleagues examined 337 patients undergoing cardiac catheterization at Emory. Just 18 percent of the patients in this group were having a . This research is a reminder that the majority of patients who undergo cardiac catheterization, and thus are suspected of experiencing a heart attack, are not actually having one at that moment.

Researchers took peripheral blood samples and analyzed them for patterns of gene expression, using microarrays to scan thousands of genes and measure which ones are turned on the blood cells and which are turned off. They used this information to generate a pattern to look for in the 31 patients in the group who would later die from cardiovascular causes.

They separated the genes into nine "axes", each representing a particular biological pathway. In patients that were experiencing a heart attack, an axis linked to the function of one type of white blood cell, lymphocytes, was down and another linked to another type of white blood cell, neutrophils, was up. The researchers interpret this as representing a pro-inflammatory response.

Seeing these patterns could help predict whether patients would then die from cardiovascular causes over the next few years (2.4 years average follow-up). This analysis was useful even on top of more mundane predictive information such as: age or whether someone had diabetes or impaired kidney function. Independently of other risk factors, patients who had a strong presence of the heart attack-linked pattern were more than 8 times more likely to die of cardiovascular causes.

Ghasemzadeh says his team's work is not aimed at replacing a doctor's judgment on whether someone is having a heart attack. Rather, it's a way of sifting through data, with an eye to crafting a test for longer-term outcomes that can be used to guide treatment. Doctors could choose to provide more intensive therapy to the patients who have higher risk, according to this test. This could be helpful in designing clinical trials, for example.

Although for statistical analysis the team separated the patients into discovery and validation groups, Ghasemzadeh adds that the results need to be further validated in larger studies. The patient group was almost all Caucasian, so additional confirmation in other populations will also be desirable.

Quyyumi notes that the that predicts is valid even for the larger group of patients who were not experiencing a heart attack when they were evaluated.

In addition, Ghasemzadeth presented data Sunday on the predictive capacity for two biomarkers related to progenitor stem cells, which are important for regenerating blood vessels.

In a similarly designed study of 479 patients undergoing , the Emory team divided into four groups based on two markers: the level of circulating hematopoetic progenitor cells, and the level of SDF-1, a "chemoattractant" responsible for the homing of progenitor cells to tissues that need repair after loss of supply.

Explore further: A new study shows that even micro heart attacks are a major problem

Related Stories

A new study shows that even micro heart attacks are a major problem

March 31, 2014
Researchers at the Minneapolis Heart Institute at Abbott Northwestern Hospital have found that cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging may help doctors better identify which patients with mild heart disease are likely to ...

Biomarker trio predicts near-term heart risk

May 21, 2013
(Medical Xpress)—Cardiologists have identified a trio of biomarkers that may predict which patients with heart disease have a high risk of heart attack or death in the next two years.

Genetic markers may predict when people with heart disease are likely to have a heart attack

March 30, 2014
Researchers at the Intermountain Medical Center Heart Institute in Salt Lake City have identified a biological process that may help physicians predict when someone with heart disease is likely to have a heart attack in the ...

Blood test helps predict heart attack risk for patients with chest pain

March 31, 2014
Patients presenting to the emergency department with an undetectable level of the blood biomarker high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T, and whose ECGs show no sign of restricted blood flow, have a minimal risk of heart attack ...

Researchers identify new protein markers that may improve understanding of heart disease

March 30, 2014
Researchers at the Intermountain Medical Center Heart Institute in Murray, Utah, have discovered that elevated levels of two recently identified proteins in the body are inflammatory markers and indicators of the presence ...

Recommended for you

Could aggressive blood pressure treatments lead to kidney damage?

July 18, 2017
Aggressive combination treatments for high blood pressure that are intended to protect the kidneys may actually be damaging the organs, new research from the University of Virginia School of Medicine suggests.

Quantifying effectiveness of treatment for irregular heartbeat

July 17, 2017
In a small proof-of-concept study, researchers at Johns Hopkins report a complex mathematical method to measure electrical communications within the heart can successfully predict the effectiveness of catheter ablation, the ...

Concerns over side effects of statins stopping stroke survivors taking medication

July 17, 2017
Negative media coverage of the side effects associated with taking statins, and patients' own experiences of taking the drugs, are among the reasons cited by stroke survivors and their carers for stopping taking potentially ...

Study discovers anticoagulant drugs are being prescribed against safety advice

July 17, 2017
A study by researchers at the University of Birmingham has shown that GPs are prescribing anticoagulants to patients with an irregular heartbeat against official safety advice.

Protein may protect against heart attack

July 14, 2017
DDK3 could be used as a new therapy to stop the build-up of fatty material inside the arteries

Heart study finds faulty link between biomarkers and clinical outcomes

July 14, 2017
Surrogate endpoints (biomarkers), which are routinely used in clinical research to test new drugs, should not be trusted as the ultimate measure to approve new health interventions in cardiovascular medicine, according to ...

0 comments

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.