Myc inhibition is an effective therapeutic strategy against most aggressive brain tumors

August 18, 2014, Vall d´Hebron Institute of Oncology
The "Mouse Models of Cancer Therapies" group. Credit: VHIO

Research led by the Vall d'Hebron Institute of Oncology (VHIO) evidence the most conclusive preclinical results to-date validating Myc inhibition as a therapeutic strategy in glioma – a highly agressive tumor type that notoriously outsmarts current anti-cancer therapies. The study led by Laura Soucek, Principal Investigator of VHIO´s Mouse Models of Cancer Therapies Group, published today in Nature Communications, not only represents an important step forward in ultimately providing brain glioma patients with new therapeutic avenues, but also reveals new insights into the biology of Myc that could further impact on its therapeutic potential.

In a study published last year, the group succeded in eradicating lung tumors in transgenic mice by adopting the same strategy involving the expression of Omomyc, a Myc inhibitor designed by Soucek. They also confirmed that there were no side effects post-administration of repeated and long-term treatment. Importantly, there was no evidence of resistance to therapy—one of the greatest challenges in the treatment of cancer. These results therefore confirmed Myc inhibition as a sound and effective therapeutic strategy for the development of novel cancer drugs.

Soucek and her group were to raise the bar yet higher. Firstly, the focus on gene expression-based therapy under experimental study progressed and re-programed on the development of an administrable Omomyc-based drug. Second, the group continued to show the efficacy of Myc inhibition across different tumors and, above and beyond transgenic models, they showed the same success in human tumors using a technique that transfers human cancer cells to immunodeficient mice. "Upon reporting initial results at preclinical level, our main concern was how do demonstrate these findings in human tumors," says Laura Soucek. "Firstly, we focused on how they could apply to other tissues and other more aggressive types for which there are no effective treatments, whereby an ´Omomyc solution´ could make all the difference. We also aimed to reveal new insights into the mechanism of action of Omomyc in tumor cells." It seems that Soucek's group has now found answers to all these questions. "All our efforts must now concentrate on finding a means for its pharmacological administration. Based on our research currently underway, we have every reason to be optimistic" asserts Soucek.

A novel therapy for the most common and aggressive brain tumor

After four years´ exhaustive research, these latest results bring more good news and with them, preclinical Myc inhibition has also been validated as a therapeutic strategy against astrocytoma, a type of glioma, in vivo in mouse models and in vitro in stem cells of these tumors. In these models, which develop advanced with clear neurological symptoms, treatment with the Omomyc transgene drastically reduces tumors and improves the associated symptoms until the mouse recovers and starts to act completely normally. Mice treated with Omomyc survived, whereas those without, did not. "We did not stop there," explains Soucek, "we applied therapy with Omomyc to both human glioblastoma cell lines and mice with patient-derived tumor xenografts that faithfully recapitulate human tumors." The therapeutic impact of Omomyc lies in its structure, which is similar to that of Myc, making it possible to block the transcription of genes controlled by this protein. Myc inhibition leads to "defects" in tumor cells and often results in their death by inducing mitotic aberrations, thus halting normal cell division.

"Our results undoubtedly show that Myc inhibition is effective in mouse tumors and, more notably, in human glioma." she explains. The group has demonstrated the additional therapeutic potential of Omomyc thanks to their clinically orientated approach aimed against the most common and aggressive primary tumor to affect the adult central nervous system – glioblastoma, for which there is a critical call to improve current therapies which are largely ineffective. "This is the very first time that the use of Omomyc in human tumor specimens have been validated. We have also confirmed that Myc inhibition is effective against the tumor once it has developed, acts against tumor initiating cells, and prevents them from dividing, proliferating and forming the tumor again." continues Dr. Soucek.

Mitotic catastrophe as the therapeutic mechanism of Myc inhibition

The Myc protein plays an important role in regulating gene transcription, controlling the expression of up to 15% of human genes. It is also implicated in cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis (programmed cell death which is necessary for tissue regeneration and the elimination of damaged cells). However, alterations in this protein trigger uncontrolled cell proliferation, which can result in cancers developing in different tissues. Myc deregulation is actually found in most tumors including cancer of the cervix, breast, colon, lung, pancreas, and stomach.

Brain tumors can now be added to this list of potential tumors that can be targeted with Myc inhibition.

At the cellular level, we now know more about its mechanism of action. Regardless of the experimental system used, Myc inhibition reduces proliferation and increases cell death. "Importantly, the cells we treated with Omomyc went crazy. They showed problems with cell proliferation, with aberrant mitosis and the formation of cells with many nuclei that then died through mitotic catastrophe, that is, due to the inability to divide properly" explains Laura Soucek. "If we do not allow Myc to function normally, cannot divide efficiently." she affirms. Myc is not deregulated in healthy cells, hence, its inhibition does not generate any significant side effects that might limit the use of this therapy.

To conclude, Myc inhibition as a against brain tumors opens up new avenues signposting fresh hope and improved, more effective therapies for patients. Soucek and her team are consequently concentrating on translating their findings to the clinic. Preliminary results show promise.

Explore further: Scientists eradicate lung tumors in a pre-clinical mouse model

Related Stories

Scientists eradicate lung tumors in a pre-clinical mouse model

March 7, 2013
The study, led by the Vall d'Hebron Institute of Oncology (VHIO), has managed to eliminate mouse lung tumours by inhibiting Myc, a protein that plays a key role in the development of many different tumours. The results, to ...

Scientists demonstrate long-sought drug candidate can halt tumor growth

August 11, 2014
It's a trick any cat burglar knows: to open a locked door, slide a credit card past the latch.

Team uncovers cancer-causing mechanism behind powerful human oncogene

August 11, 2014
A protein present at high levels in more than half of all human cancers drives cell growth by blocking the expression of just a handful of genes involved in DNA packaging and cell death, according to a new study by researchers ...

New findings on neurogenesis in the spinal cord

March 5, 2014
Research from Karolinska Institutet in Sweden suggests that the expression of the so called MYC gene is important and necessary for neurogenesis in the spinal cord. The findings are being published in the journal EMBO Reports.

Hard-to-treat Myc-driven cancers may be susceptible to drug already used in clinic

December 14, 2012
Drugs that are used in the clinic to treat some forms of breast and kidney cancer and that work by inhibiting the signaling molecule mTORC1 might have utility in treating some of the more than 15 percent of human cancers ...

Scientists identify a critical tumor suppressor for cancer

August 2, 2012
Scientists from the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute have identified a protein that impairs the development and maintenance of lymphoma (cancer of the lymph nodes), but is repressed during the initial stages ...

Recommended for you

Single blood test screens for eight cancer types

January 18, 2018
Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center researchers developed a single blood test that screens for eight common cancer types and helps identify the location of the cancer.

How cancer metastasis happens: Researchers reveal a key mechanism

January 18, 2018
Cancer metastasis, the migration of cells from a primary tumor to form distant tumors in the body, can be triggered by a chronic leakage of DNA within tumor cells, according to a team led by Weill Cornell Medicine and Memorial ...

Researchers find a way to 'starve' cancer

January 18, 2018
Researchers at Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC) have demonstrated for the first time that it is possible to starve a tumor and stop its growth with a newly discovered small compound that blocks uptake of the vital ...

Modular gene enhancer promotes leukemia and regulates effectiveness of chemotherapy

January 18, 2018
Every day, billions of new blood cells are generated in the bone marrow. The gene Myc is known to play an important role in this process, and is also known to play a role in cancer. Scientists from the German Cancer Research ...

These foods may up your odds for colon cancer

January 18, 2018
(HealthDay)—Chowing down on red meat, white bread and sugar-laden drinks might increase your long-term risk of colon cancer, a new study suggests.

The pill lowers ovarian cancer risk, even for smokers

January 18, 2018
(HealthDay)—It's known that use of the birth control pill is tied to lower odds for ovarian cancer, but new research shows the benefit extends to smokers or women who are obese.

0 comments

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.