Vitamin D status related to immune response to HIV-1

June 15, 2015
HIV-1 Virus. Credit: J Roberto Trujillo/Wikipedia

Vitamin D plays an important part in the human immune response and deficiency can leave individuals less able to fight infections like HIV-1. Now an international team of researchers has found that high-dose vitamin D supplementation can reverse the deficiency and also improve immune response.

"Vitamin D may be a simple, cost-effective intervention, particularly in resource-poor settings, to reduce HIV-1 risk and disease progression," the researchers report in today's (June 15) online issue of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

The researchers looked at two ethnic groups in Cape Town, South Africa, to see how seasonal differences in exposure to ultraviolet B radiation, dietary vitamin D, genetics, and pigmentation affected vitamin D levels, and whether high-dose supplementation improved deficiencies and the cell's ability to repel HIV-1.

"Cape Town, South Africa, has a seasonal ultraviolet B regime and one of the world's highest rates of HIV-1 infection, peaking in young adults, making it an appropriate location for a longitudinal study like this one," said Nina Jablonski, Evan Pugh Professor of Anthropology, Penn State, who led the research.

One hundred healthy young individuals divided between those of Xhosa ancestry—whose ancestors migrated from closer to the equator into the Cape area—and those self-identified as having Cape Mixed ancestry—a complex admixture of Xhosa, Khoisan, European, South Asian and Indonesian populations—were recruited for this study. The groups were matched for age and smoking. The Xhosa, whose ancestors came from a place with more ultraviolet B radiation, have the darkest skin pigmentation, while the Khoisan—the original inhabitants of the Cape—have adapted to the seasonally changing ultraviolet radiation in the area and are lighter skinned. The Cape Mixed population falls between the Xhosa and Khoisan in skin pigmentation levels.

Cape Town is situated in the southern hemisphere at about the same distance from the equator as the Florida panhandle, slightly more than 30 degrees latitude. Ultraviolet B levels show a winter decline anywhere above 30 degrees latitude, so Cape Town has a definite winter with low levels of the ultraviolet B wavelengths needed to produce precursor vitamin D3. Add to this the fact that people now spend more time indoors during winter and wear more clothing, and exposure to ultraviolet B in winter may be insufficient to prevent vitamin D deficiency.

The researchers note that sunscreen use is not a factor in these populations. However, the darker the skin's pigment, the more ultraviolet B radiation necessary to trigger the precursor chemicals in the body to produce vitamin D.

"The skin of the indigenous people of the Cape, the Khoisan, is considerably lighter than that of either study group and may represent a long-established adaptation to seasonal UVB," according to the researchers. "The darker skin of both study populations—Xhosia and Cape mixed—denotes a degree of mismatch between and environmental UVB resulting from their recent migration into the region."

The researchers found that both groups exhibited vitamin D deficiency during the winter, with women in both groups being more deficient, on average, than the men. Because of vitamin D's impact on the immune system, the researchers provided six weeks of supplemental vitamin D3 to 30 of the Xhosa participants, which brought 77 percent of the participants to optimal vitamin D status.

Jablonski and her team determined that diet, genetics and other variables played very small roles in vitamin D status, although some genetic variations did influence the success of supplementation.

To test how vitamin D status affected the immune system and HIV-1 in particular, the researchers exposed blood samples from Xhosa and Cape mixed participants taken during the summer and winter when the subjects were vitamin D sufficient or deficient. They found that after nine days, the winter blood samples had greater infection than those taken in summer. After six weeks of vitamin D supplementation, the Xhosa blood sample levels of HIV-1 infection were the same as those during the summer.

"High-dosage oral D3 supplementation attenuated HIV-1 replication, increased circulating white blood cells and reversed winter-associated anemia," the researchers reported. "Vitamin D3 presents a low-cost supplementation to improve HIV-associated immunity."

Explore further: New research calls for vitamin D supplementation in critically ill pediatric burn patients

More information: High-dose vitamin D3 reduces deficiency caused by low UVB exposure and limits HIV-1 replication in urban Southern Africans,

Related Stories

New research calls for vitamin D supplementation in critically ill pediatric burn patients

June 9, 2015
Deficiency of vitamin D is a common problem for patients with severe burn injuries and can lead to further health compromise. However, there are no evidence-based guidelines for vitamin D replenishment in such patients.

Mega-doses of Vitamin D may decrease hospital stays for critical care patients, study suggests

May 27, 2015
Hospitalized patients often have insufficient levels of vitamin D because of the lack of physical activity and exposure to the sun. Vitamin D is thought to increase the ability of immune cells to fight infection.

Winter weather depriving city dwellers of vitamin D

February 13, 2015
Residents of snowy, northern U.S. cities are at risk of vitamin D deficiency and worse, may not even know it.

Vitamin D supplements might help some lose weight

May 9, 2015
(HealthDay)—For obese Americans who are low on vitamin D, taking a supplement of the nutrient might help them lose weight, a new study suggests.

Who benefits from vitamin D?

August 13, 2013
Studying the expression of genes that are dependent on vitamin D makes it possible to identify individuals who will benefit from vitamin D supplementation, shows a University of Eastern Finland study published recently in ...

Low vitamin D levels a risk factor for pneumonia

April 30, 2013
A University of Eastern Finland study showed that low serum vitamin D levels are a risk factor for pneumonia. The risk of contracting pneumonia was more than 2.5 times greater in subjects with the lowest vitamin D levels ...

Recommended for you

Researchers create molecule that could 'kick and kill' HIV

October 5, 2017
Current anti-AIDS drugs are highly effective at making HIV undetectable and allowing people with the virus to live longer, healthier lives. The treatments, a class of medications called antiretroviral therapy, also greatly ...

A sixth of new HIV patients in Europe 50 or older: study

September 27, 2017
People aged 50 and older comprise a growing percentage of HIV patients in Europe, accounting for one in six new cases in 2015, researchers said Wednesday.

Three-in-one antibody protects monkeys from HIV-like virus

September 20, 2017
A three-pronged antibody made in the laboratory protected monkeys from infection with two strains of SHIV, a monkey form of HIV, better than individual natural antibodies from which the engineered antibody is derived, researchers ...

Fighting HIV on multiple fronts might lead to vaccine

September 20, 2017
A combination antibody strategy could be the key to halting the spread of HIV, according to results from two promising animal studies.

HIV-AIDS: Following your gut

September 18, 2017
Researchers at the University of Montreal Hospital Research Centre (CRCHUM) have discovered a way to slow viral replication in the gastrointestinal tract of people infected by HIV-AIDS.

Study finds cutbacks in foreign aid for HIV treatment would cause great harm

August 30, 2017
Proposed reductions in U.S. foreign aid would have a devastating impact on HIV treatment and prevention programs in countries receiving such aid, an international team of investigators reports. In their paper published online ...


Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.