Study shows memory loss due to cannabis related to harm to mitochondria

November 10, 2016 by Bob Yirka report
Mitochondria. Credit: Wikipedia commons

(Medical Xpress)—An international team of researchers has found what they believe is the source of memory loss in people who smoke marijuana—disruption to mitochondria. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the group describes their study of receptor activation due to exposure to active ingredients in cannabis and its impact on mitochondria.

A mitochondrion is an organelle located inside of most cells—it is commonly referred to as the part of the cell responsible for energy regulation. In this new effort, the researchers looked into the impact of cannabis on in brain cells to find out if it may play a role in immobility, catalepsy (onset of seizures or a trance-like state) or memory loss due to use of the controversial drug.

Prior research has shown that CB1 receptors are located in the plasma membrane that surrounds typical brain cells. Other research has also shown that chronic use of cannabis can cause memory loss and other problems and that substances in it bind to CB1 receptors on nerve terminals, which, in turn, can cause a disruption in the transmissions of messages between cells. The net result is memory loss, catatonic states or blackouts. In this new effort, the researchers found that chemicals in cannabis also caused activation of CB1 receptors in mitochondria in brain cells located in the hippocampus, which is where most memory processing occurs. This, they claim, suggests memory loss due to use of cannabis can be sourced to the impact it has on the organelles.

The team came to this conclusion by removing the CB1 receptors in mitochondria in mice and testing the mice to see if they continued to experience memory loss due to the introduction of the cannabis chemicals. The team reports they did not, which suggests that interactions between cannabis chemicals and mitochondria plays a major role in memory loss and likely other associated with chronic use of marijuana. They suggest their findings indicate that chronic use of the drug could cause permanent damage to mitochondria, leading to long-term or permanent memory loss and other health problems.

The researchers also suggest their findings indicate that there may be a way to modify medical used to treat diseases such as glaucoma so that it does not cause or other associated , by removing its impact on mitochondria.

Explore further: Study adds to evidence that high strength cannabis is associated with an increased risk of becoming dependent

More information: Etienne Hebert-Chatelain et al. A cannabinoid link between mitochondria and memory, Nature (2016). DOI: 10.1038/nature20127

Abstract
Cellular activity in the brain depends on the high energetic support provided by mitochondria, the cell organelles which use energy sources to generate ATP. Acute cannabinoid intoxication induces amnesia in humans and animals, and the activation of type-1 cannabinoid receptors present at brain mitochondria membranes (mtCB1) can directly alter mitochondrial energetic activity. Although the pathological impact of chronic mitochondrial dysfunctions in the brain is well established, the involvement of acute modulation of mitochondrial activity in high brain functions, including learning and memory, is unknown. Here, we show that acute cannabinoid-induced memory impairment in mice requires activation of hippocampal mtCB1 receptors. Genetic exclusion of CB1 receptors from hippocampal mitochondria prevents cannabinoid-induced reduction of mitochondrial mobility, synaptic transmission and memory formation. mtCB1 receptors signal through intra-mitochondrial Gαi protein activation and consequent inhibition of soluble-adenylyl cyclase (sAC). The resulting inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent phosphorylation of specific subunits of the mitochondrial electron transport system eventually leads to decreased cellular respiration. Hippocampal inhibition of sAC activity or manipulation of intra-mitochondrial PKA signalling or phosphorylation of the Complex I subunit NDUFS2 inhibit bioenergetic and amnesic effects of cannabinoids. Thus, the G protein-coupled mtCB1 receptors regulate memory processes via modulation of mitochondrial energy metabolism. By directly linking mitochondrial activity to memory formation, these data reveal that bioenergetic processes are primary acute regulators of cognitive functions.

Press release

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gkam
1 / 5 (4) Nov 10, 2016
Since we have folk who have used it daily for 50 years, why don't they show symptoms?
Uncle Ira
2.7 / 5 (7) Nov 10, 2016
Since we have folk who have used it daily for 50 years, why don't they show symptoms?


glam-Skippy. I got some questions that you will not answer, but I am going to ask them anyway.

1) "Since we have folk" is assuming the fact that is not in evidence. It is the sort of a thing a pothead would say while he is stoned. What folks? How many? How did you find them so I can check out that it is true or just something you made up.

2) Who checked them out and determined that they are showing non effects? What test was done on them? Was it a controlled study with control subjects?

3) Do you really think that "Since we have folk who have used it daily for 50 years, why don't they show symptoms?" is a very reasonable or informed comment?
RMQ
5 / 5 (4) Nov 10, 2016
That is right... that is why Bob Dylan took so long to reply to the Nobel committee.... he kept forgetting.
gkam
2.5 / 5 (8) Nov 10, 2016
Ira, your entire reason for being here is to play the Cajun Mark Twain, the thing you call "The Uncle Ira Show". Remember that self-awarded moniker? It does not work. Keep it for the tourists.

I do happen to have friends who have used it for decades and they show more manners and sense than most other folk. It is medication for them, you idiot, not "recreation". Those of you who never served, never got that stressed, never been pushed past the elastic limit know nothing. Nothing.

You have cute phrases, but no experience in life, and no Humanity.

Come to a Vet Center and call them "potheads". Please.
gkam
2.1 / 5 (7) Nov 10, 2016
The veterans who use cannabis do so from the stresses you stay-at-home "patriots" never had to experience. Your adolescent characterizations betray ignorance and poor character.
abecedarian
4.3 / 5 (6) Nov 10, 2016
gkam - some of Ira's queries were valid; there are always outliers in various situations. Without empirical evidence to support a statement, that statement is relegated to opinion and / or assumption.

People say 'pot' is natural, safe, et cetera, but there are studies showing that is not true for everyone. My experience also supports that. When I did use it, after a few years I lacked motivation for anything other than getting more, and I only smoked one joint a day. A family member, who smoked 2-3 a day, lost patience and became physically violent after the first... then, the next day, didn't remember what happened.
gkam
1 / 5 (4) Nov 10, 2016
abe, Ira was just taking a shot at me. I do not recommend anybody smoke or ingest it.

For some, It is another intoxicant. I do not recommend intoxicants. For others, it has been necessary as a dream suppressant, a stress reducer, a life-saver.
Captain Stumpy
3 / 5 (4) Nov 10, 2016
@STOLEN VALOR LIAR-kam
why don't they show symptoms?
funny you should ask this - i guess you don't *remember* that i've already linked them to you? so your inquiry and forgetfulness actually validates the study above
https://www.ncbi....3037578/

http://www.scienc...05001334

https://www.resea...50d7.pdf

apparently you also forgot how to use google (or g-scholar) to search for evidence?
I do happen to have friends who have used it for decades
lets see: you have anecdote from the perspective of a self-professed long time user

the science has validates studies from the perspective of objective non-biased research

whom to believe? [hyperbole/satire/sarcasm]

PS - atypical results are not typical by definition

Captain Stumpy
2.6 / 5 (5) Nov 10, 2016
validates
sorry folk - that should be "validated"
-big fingers, fast typist-

@STOLEN VALOR LIAR-kam cont'd
Since we have folk who have used it daily for 50 years, why don't they show symptoms?
how would you know if you show symptoms if your memory loss is your own?

http://www.medici...toms.htm

http://www.webmd....symptoms

http://www.mayocl...20046326

http://www.alz.or...-mci.asp

http://symptoms.r...loss.htm

http://memory.ucs...ases/mci

http://www.mayocl...20206111
antialias_physorg
5 / 5 (3) Nov 11, 2016
People say 'pot' is natural

So is plutonium. What has 'natural' got to do with it whether something is good for you or not?
gkam
1.8 / 5 (5) Nov 11, 2016
"how would you know if you show symptoms if your memory loss is your own?"
-------------------------------------------------------------
Sorry, but trips into wiki do not provide any experience, do they? Only knowing what someone tells you gets you only what he wants you to believe.

I have lived with sufferers of our military adventures most of my life. Their use of cannabis is extensive and real, not some third or fourth-hand screed by someone with an axe to grind. Those of you who try to pretend you have served make me furious.

They will continue to use it. If you ever have an experience of that kind, you will use it, too.
gkam
1 / 5 (4) Nov 11, 2016
"So is plutonium"
------------------------------------

Not any more. ALL of the Plutonium on Earth is man-made. The natural stuff degraded long ago.
Uncle Ira
3.4 / 5 (5) Nov 11, 2016
glam-Skippy says in comment on article about pot and memory loss,,,,,,

Since we have folk who have used it daily for 50 years, why don't they show symptoms?


That is it, non more, and non less. Just that. It's true, and it's stupid.

Another moron-Skippy says in the comment on an article about tobacco and cancer,,,,,,,,

Since we have folk who have used it daily for 50 years, why don't they show symptoms?


That's it, non more and non less. Just that. It is a true statement, but it is stupid.

@ glam-Skippy. Your later comments may have some meaning and may be correct. But your first comment was just plain stupid like the moron-Skippy's. Both might be true, but both are really stupid.

"Since we have some folk" connected to "why don't they have symptoms", is not scientific, it's somebody on the street musing about "I wonder what?" and "I wonder why". I wonder why they have not found no unicorns yet after all these years of looking.
Captain Stumpy
3 / 5 (4) Nov 11, 2016
@STOLEN VALOR LIAR-kam
but trips into wiki do not provide any experience
apparently your reading and comprehension has been degraded by chronic abuse:
3 scientific studies and 7 medical web-sites that show diagnostic criteria from memory and cognitive impairment disease and not a wiki reference in any of them
I have lived with sufferers of our military adventures most of my life
says the radio-repairman from an air farce base that was only in theater and experiencing no combat
AKA - STOLEN VALOR
Those of you who try to pretend you have served make me furious
and now you know a tiny bit about how any real combat vet feels about your BS posts

so tell us all, mr Chronic liar: where is your evidenciary refute that is equivalent to my scientific rebuttal of your stupidity?

by all means, show us how your experience trumps scientific evidence that directly contradicts your beliefs

thanks

oh, and per your requests...
gkam
1.8 / 5 (5) Nov 11, 2016
Ira, please go back to Twitter for your personal comments. There are many things you will consider to be "stupid" because of your own lack of knowledge and experience.

Nobody disputes cannabis has memory effects. But when you folk who have been coddled all your lives start calling war veterans "potheads", it betrays a lack of Humanity.

Why do you and Trumpy and otto continue to follow me around to punish me for hurting your feelings? What is in your character to need to hide from folk while you abuse them?

It is perverse, Toots.

And you are sufficiently intelligent to understand that.

Le's stick with the topics, and get off the personal fixations.
gkam
1 / 5 (4) Nov 11, 2016
Do we have a moderator here? Can you please stop the personal attacks?

My real name is used in this forum, and you are complicit in my defamation.

Go here and tell me why I should not get significant payment for your actions as an accomplice:

http://www.bbc.co...35712772

I have reported this post myself.
TheGhostofOtto1923
5 / 5 (2) Nov 11, 2016
Hey there gutless liar
Do we have a moderator here? Can you please stop the personal attacks?

My real name is used in this forum, and you are complicit in my defamation.

Go here and tell me why I should not get significant payment for your actions as an accomplice:

http://www.bbc.co...35712772

I have reported this post myself.
You have used your own name here to lie and cheat and make up facts. You have defamed yourself. You have exposed yourself and your family to ridicule, scorn, and potential personal injury because of your ignorance and selfishness.

The reason you do these things is because you are a psychopath and a very sick man. Perhaps your addictions have something to do with this, but psychopathy is something you are born with.

The mods as well as the posters here are well aware of your self-destructive nature.
Captain Stumpy
3.7 / 5 (3) Nov 11, 2016
@STOLEN VALOR LIAR-kam
my defamation.
Defamation
Any intentional false communication, either written or spoken, that harms a person's reputation; decreases the respect, regard, or confidence in which a person is held; or induces disparaging, hostile, or disagreeable opinions or feelings against a person
http://legal-dict...famation

had you actually talked to a lawyer you would see that you do not have grounds for a case, nor do you have the ability to prosecute

proof of defamation includes intent and it differs with public and private citizens (see link)

your own actions and statements are used against you here as evidence to support the claims made against you, therefore any defamation lawsuit will include said evidence

as you can't actually refute the evidence, you can't argue defamation, even in GB

feel free to validate this with a lawyer like you said you would
& send them my addy for the summons too

per your request...
Uncle Ira
3 / 5 (6) Nov 11, 2016
@ glam-Skippy. If you are going to tell lies, try not to tell them in one article. It makes them stand out more.

Nobody disputes cannabis has memory effects.


That moron is telling the lie,,,,,, because some other moron started off the comment section with,,,,

Since we have folk who have used it daily for 50 years, why don't they show symptoms?


They are both idiots, and one of them is lying. (But a pothead might think they are both really smart things to say,,,, but only if he said them him self after smoking some pot.)
Uncle Ira
3.4 / 5 (5) Nov 11, 2016
My real name is used in this forum, and you are complicit in my defamation.
You were stupid enough to put it there Skippy. Then you doubled down on stupid and provided the road to your "business",,,, and your house, and your neighbor's house, and your social security number, even some very unflattering pictures of your self,,,,, now you want somebody else to come clean up the mess?

Go here and tell me why I should not get significant payment for your actions as an accomplice:
Because being stupid is not protected under the law.
gkam
1 / 5 (4) Nov 11, 2016
You are not worth the time, Trumpy, my beef is with otto and the site. You are just an irrelevant person hiding in the woods using a phony name and abusing others. But your uncontrolled anger and need for revenge over self-determined slights betrays real problems.

As for stolen valor, you saw I was in the group when we earned both our Outstanding Unit Citations with Combat "V" Device, just as I said. You cannot even prove you served anywhere. Were you too scared?

Now, let's end this personal feud. We should be discussing the topic.
Captain Stumpy
3 / 5 (4) Nov 11, 2016
@STOLEN VALOR LIAR-kam
...my beef is with otto and the site
you do realise that if you should even litigate, the site will be compelled to defend itself and thus call me in as not only witness but also as corroborating evidence to establish your culpability and intent in said false accusations, right?
As for stolen valor, you saw I was in the group
when a speeder gets a ticket, he can't excuse himself in the eyes of the law because he was rushing to an emergency

the law is specific - it requires annotation in the DD214, 201 file and a certificate, none of which you can present to establish your credibility

therefore this isn't a "personal feud"
you are violating THE LAW
UCMJ ("Title 10 U.S.C., Chapter 45, The Uniform, Department of Defense Instruction (DoDI) 1334.1, Wearing of the Uniform, and Air Force Policy Directive (AFPD) 36-29, Military Standards"), AFI 36-2903. AFI 36-28

so, per your request...
TheGhostofOtto1923
3.7 / 5 (3) Nov 11, 2016
Hey there little monkey
Now, let's end this personal feud. We should be discussing the topic
Stop your lying and cheating and making up facts. Can you do that? No, because youre a psychopath and as such youre constitutionally incapable of being honest.
gkam
1 / 5 (4) Nov 11, 2016
Both of you: Outgrow your fixation on getting even. Whatever you use in your hiding place is making you as nuts as a speed freak. Your lashing out is on the level of screaming nasty words across the playground.

Outgrow it.
TheGhostofOtto1923
5 / 5 (2) Nov 11, 2016
Hey little monkey man
Both of you: Outgrow your fixation on getting even. Whatever you use in your hiding place is making you as nuts as a speed freak. Your lashing out is on the level of screaming nasty words across the playground.

Outgrow it.
George kamburoff has proven himself to be a serial liar, cheat, and fact fabricator. And exposing him every time he does these things here is a very mature and responsible thing to do.

And there is absolutely nothing he can do about it.

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