In HIV, tissue factor-expressing monocytes trigger coagulation

September 11, 2017

(HealthDay)—A specific subset of tissue factor (TF)-expressing monocytes persist after virological suppression and trigger the coagulation cascade by activating factor X in HIV, according to a study published online Aug. 30 in Science Translational Medicine.

Melissa E. Schechter, from Leidos Biomedical Research Inc. in Frederick, Maryland, and colleagues explored the inflammatory and coagulation pathways in HIV infection in order to better optimize clinical care.

The researchers identified a specific subset of monocytes that express TF, persist after virological suppression, and activate factor X to trigger the . A distinct gene signature was observed in this subset of monocytes expressing TF, with upregulated innate immune markers and evidence of robust production of multiple proinflammatory cytokines (including interleukin [IL]-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and IL-6) ex vivo and in vitro upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation. The findings were validated in a nonhuman primate model, showing an association for TF-expressing inflammatory monocytes with SIV-related coagulopathy in the progressive (pigtail macaques [PTMs]) but not the nonpathogenic SIV infection model. In HIV and SIV infection, testing of Ixolaris, an anticoagulant that inhibits the TF pathway, potently blocked functional TF activity in vitro without affecting monocyte responses to toll-like receptor stimulation. In vivo treatment of chronically infected PTMs with Ixolaris correlated with significant reductions in D-dimer and immune activation.

"These data suggest that TF-expressing monocytes are at the epicenter of inflammation and coagulation in chronic HIV and SIV ," the authors write.

Explore further: Tick saliva may be a secret ingredient to help HIV patients

More information: Abstract
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Related Stories

Tick saliva may be a secret ingredient to help HIV patients

September 7, 2017
The black-legged tick -loaded with bacteria causing Lyme disease - may have some good qualities: its spit.

Etosis phenomenon discovered in human blood monocytes

September 1, 2017
A recent study published online in the Journal of Leukocyte Biology found the first clear demonstration of etosis in human blood monocytes, a type of immune cell. Etosis, a phenomenon previously presumed to be due to neutrophils ...

Discovery of the monocytes that secrete a pro-inflammatory protein

August 10, 2017
Different populations of white blood cells secrete different levels of IL-1β, a pro-inflammatory protein that normally helps the body fight off infection and injury, but may also trigger autoimmune disease and inflammatory ...

Study finds monocytes replenish the bone marrow's supply of infection-fighting monocytes

August 10, 2017
Infection-fighting immune cells known as monocytes consist of two distinct subpopulations in the bone marrow, an A*STAR investigation has found. One of these acts as a reservoir for the other in order to maintain a stable ...

Tick saliva may hold potential treatment for reducing HIV-linked heart disease risk

August 30, 2017
Scientists may have found a clue to why people living with HIV have double the likelihood of developing heart disease. The findings, made by researchers at the University of Pittsburgh Center for Vaccine Research and National ...

Recommended for you

Fetal T cells are first responders to infection in adults

June 20, 2018
Cornell University researchers have discovered there is a division of labor among immune cells that fight invading pathogens in the body.

How a thieving transcription factor dominates the genome

June 20, 2018
One powerful DNA-binding protein, the transcription factor PU.1, steals away other transcription factors and recruits them for its own purposes, effectively dominating gene regulation in developing immune cells, according ...

Composition of complex sugars in breast milk may prevent future food allergies

June 12, 2018
The unique composition of a mother's breastmilk may help to reduce food sensitization in her infant, report researchers at the University of California San Diego School of Medicine with colleagues in Canada.

Drug may quell deadly immune response when trauma spills the contents of our cells' powerhouses

June 11, 2018
When trauma spills the contents of our cell powerhouses, it can evoke a potentially deadly immune response much like a severe bacterial infection.

Immune system does not recover despite cured hepatitis C infection

June 11, 2018
Changes to the immune system remain many years after a hepatitis C infection heals, a new study by researchers at Karolinska Institutet, Sweden, and Hannover Medical School, Germany, shows. The findings, presented in Nature ...

Food allergies connected to children with autism spectrum disorder

June 8, 2018
A new study from the University of Iowa finds that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are more than twice as likely to suffer from a food allergy than children who do not have ASD.

0 comments

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.