Medical research

Discovery illuminates how cell growth pathway responds to signals

A basic science discovery by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health reveals a fundamental way cells interpret signals from their environment and may eventually pave the way for potential new therapies.

Genetics

Study reveals new insights into facial birth defects

Mount Sinai researchers have revealed new insights into how the body regulates craniofacial development in newborns, which can sometimes lead to birth defects such as cleft lip or palate.

Psychology & Psychiatry

STAT3 identified as important factor in emotional reactivity

Numerous scientific studies indicate that inflammatory processes play a key role in the development of psychiatric disorders. One of the areas of particular interest is the interleukin 6/STAT3 signal transduction pathway, ...

Medications

Inhibiting epileptic activity in the brain

Epileptic seizures often originate in small, localized areas of the brain where neurons abnormally fire in unison. These electrical impulses disrupt proper brain functioning and cause seizures. But what makes regions where ...

Medical research

Amniotic fluid may yield new, better treatment for ischemic stroke

A study released today in STEM CELLS Translational Medicine points the way to a possible new avenue of treatment for ischemic stroke. The study, led by Annamaria Cimini, Ph.D., of the University of L'Aquila, and Liborio Stuppia, ...

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Signal transduction

In biology, 'signal transduction' refers to any process by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another. Most processes of signal transduction involve ordered sequences of biochemical reactions inside the cell, which are carried out by enzymes and activated by second messengers, resulting in a signal transduction pathway. Such processes are usually rapid, lasting on the order of milliseconds in the case of ion flux, or minutes for the activation of protein- and lipid-mediated kinase cascades, but some can take hours, and even days (as is the case with gene expression), to complete. The number of proteins and other molecules participating in the events involving signal transduction increases as the process emanates from the initial stimulus, resulting in a "signal cascade," beginning with a relatively small stimulus that elicits a large response. This is referred to as amplification of the signal.

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