Medical research

A molecular switch for stomach disease

Infectious diseases triggered by bacteria and other microbes are the most frequent cause of human mortality around the globe. Roughly half of the world's population carries the stomach-infecting bacteria Helicobacter pylori ...

Psychology & Psychiatry

Scientists develop new method that predicts vulnerability to stress

Stress is part of life for everyone, but how we respond to it seems to vary from person to person. For some, the effects of a stressful situation can be long-lasting and lead to anxiety, depression, and other health problems; ...

Medical research

A common insulin signaling pathway across cancer and diabetes

An oncology researcher has made an unexpected contribution to the understanding of type 2 diabetes. In results published in Science Advances, Patrick Hu, M.D., associate professor of medicine at Vanderbilt University Medical ...

Medications

Epilepsy drug inhibits brain tumor development

Medication prescribed for a certain type of epilepsy may offer a new method for treating malignant infantile brain tumors. A specific mTOR inhibitor has the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier to both reach and attack ...

Medical research

Scientists identify a genetic basis for healthy sleep

From organisms as simple as worms to those as complex as humans, sleep is a fundamental necessity. But although an estimated 50 to 70 million people in the United States suffer from a chronic sleep disorder, the genetic mechanisms ...

Oncology & Cancer

Research finds potential target for tumor-causing condition

University of Cincinnati researchers have found additional ways to target the molecular processes involved in activating a certain protein complex to potentially develop new therapies for a tumor-causing disorder.

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Signal transduction

In biology, 'signal transduction' refers to any process by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another. Most processes of signal transduction involve ordered sequences of biochemical reactions inside the cell, which are carried out by enzymes and activated by second messengers, resulting in a signal transduction pathway. Such processes are usually rapid, lasting on the order of milliseconds in the case of ion flux, or minutes for the activation of protein- and lipid-mediated kinase cascades, but some can take hours, and even days (as is the case with gene expression), to complete. The number of proteins and other molecules participating in the events involving signal transduction increases as the process emanates from the initial stimulus, resulting in a "signal cascade," beginning with a relatively small stimulus that elicits a large response. This is referred to as amplification of the signal.

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