Medical research

Researchers discover new pathway for improving metabolic health

Blocking the action of an enzyme involved in protein digestion may improve metabolic health, according to a new study published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology—Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. ...

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Study links patrolling monocytes to lupus-related kidney disease

A study led by St. Jude Children's Research Hospital has found evidence suggesting that patrolling monocytes may drive glomerulonephritis, inflammation of the kidneys, in patients with lupus. The findings overturn the previously ...

Diabetes

Mechanism of impaired wound healing in diabetes identified

Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have identified a mechanism that can explain the impaired wound healing in diabetes which can lead to diabetic foot ulcers. The study is published in the scientific journal Proceedings ...

Medical research

Oscillation in muscle tissue

When a muscle grows or a muscle injury heals, some stem cells develop into new muscle cells. A research team at the MDC led by Carmen Birchmeier has now described in the journal Genes & Development how this process is regulated ...

Cancer

How a common oral bacteria makes colon cancer more deadly

Researchers at the Columbia University College of Dental Medicine have determined how F. nucleatum—a common oral bacteria often implicated in tooth decay—accelerates the growth of colon cancer. The study was published ...

Neuroscience

Identity crisis of satiety neurons leads to obesity

Obesity − as research in the past decade has shown − is first and foremost a brain disease. Researchers at Helmholtz Zentrum München, partners in the German Center for Diabetes Research, have now discovered a molecular ...

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Signal transduction

In biology, 'signal transduction' refers to any process by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another. Most processes of signal transduction involve ordered sequences of biochemical reactions inside the cell, which are carried out by enzymes and activated by second messengers, resulting in a signal transduction pathway. Such processes are usually rapid, lasting on the order of milliseconds in the case of ion flux, or minutes for the activation of protein- and lipid-mediated kinase cascades, but some can take hours, and even days (as is the case with gene expression), to complete. The number of proteins and other molecules participating in the events involving signal transduction increases as the process emanates from the initial stimulus, resulting in a "signal cascade," beginning with a relatively small stimulus that elicits a large response. This is referred to as amplification of the signal.

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