HIV hides soon after infection, research shows

May 30, 2012 By Lisa Chensvold
HIV-infected T-cells. Credit: NIAID

(Medical Xpress) -- A team of researchers led by the University of North Carolina School of Medicine has demonstrated that latency develops soon after infection and slows when antiretroviral therapy is given.

While current therapies are effective at controlling HIV, some virus remains hidden in certain CD4+ T cells, specialized that the virus uses to replicate. This latent infection remains a significant challenge to curing HIV.

A team of researchers led by the University of North Carolina School of Medicine has demonstrated that develops soon after infection and slows when antiretroviral therapy is given.

The results were published today online in the early edition of .

The team studied 27 patients with acute HIV infection (AHI). AHI occurs soon after exposure, when virus is found in but are not yet detectible. All but one of the patients studied had been infected in the last 45 days. The study team developed a to predict how often latent cells were infected based on when ART was started. They found that early treatment reduced the production of latently infected cells.

In addition, the researchers found that there are two types of latently infected cells, one short-lived, but another extremely durable, what the authors refer to as a “deep” latent infection. “We found that decayed in some patients, but that all had a few deeply latent infected cells,” said David Margolis, MD, professor of medicine, microbiology and immunology, and epidemiology at UNC and senior author on the study. “These are the cells that we must eliminate to cure infection.”

The team made other hopeful observations. “The immune response of some patients appear to play a role in limiting the size of the latent reservoir,” said Nancie Archin, PhD, the study’s lead author and a research scientist at the medical school. “Efforts to improve the immune response to prevent HIV infection may also teach us to eradicate it.”

The research was conducted through the Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and as part of a UNC-led consortium, the Collaboratory of AIDS Researchers for Eradication (CARE), funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. The consortium is administered by the North Carolina Translational and Clinical Sciences (NC TraCS) Institute at UNC, one of 60 medical research institutions in the US working to improve biomedical research through the NIH Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) program.

Explore further: Vaccination strategy may hold key to ridding HIV infection from immune system

Related Stories

Drug helps purge hidden HIV virus, study shows

March 8, 2012

A team of researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have successfully flushed latent HIV infection from hiding, with a drug used to treat certain types of lymphoma.

Recommended for you

Targeting HIV in semen to shut down AIDS

August 18, 2015

There may be two new ways to fight AIDS—using a heat shock protein or a small molecule - to attack fibrils in semen associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during the initial phases of infection, according ...

Vitamin D status related to immune response to HIV-1

June 15, 2015

Vitamin D plays an important part in the human immune response and deficiency can leave individuals less able to fight infections like HIV-1. Now an international team of researchers has found that high-dose vitamin D supplementation ...

Why HIV's cloak has a long tail

June 2, 2015

Virologists at Emory University School of Medicine, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, and Children's Healthcare of Atlanta have uncovered a critical detail explaining how HIV assembles its infectious yet stealthy clothing.

0 comments

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.