Sugar molecule Neu5Gc links red meat consumption and elevated cancer risk in mice

red meat
An uncooked rib roast. Credit: Michael C. Berch/Wikipedia

While people who eat a lot of red meat are known to be at higher risk for certain cancers, other carnivores are not, prompting researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine to investigate the possible tumor-forming role of a sugar called Neu5Gc, which is naturally found in most mammals but not in humans.

In a study published in the Dec. 29 online early edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the scientists found that feeding Neu5Gc to mice engineered to be deficient in the sugar (like humans) significantly promoted spontaneous cancers. The study did not involve exposure to carcinogens or artificially inducing cancers, further implicating Neu5Gc as a key link between red and cancer.

"Until now, all of our evidence linking Neu5Gc to cancer was circumstantial or indirectly predicted from somewhat artificial experimental setups," said principal investigator Ajit Varki, MD, Distinguished Professor of Medicine and Cellular and Molecular Medicine and member of the UC San Diego Moores Cancer Center. "This is the first time we have directly shown that mimicking the exact situation in humans—feeding non-human Neu5Gc and inducing anti-Neu5Gc antibodies—increases spontaneous cancers in mice."

Varki's team first conducted a systematic survey of common foods. They found that red meats (beef, pork and lamb) are rich in Neu5Gc, affirming that foods of mammalian origin such as these are the primary sources of Neu5Gc in the human diet. The molecule was found to be bio-available, too, meaning it can be distributed to tissues throughout the body via the bloodstream.

The researchers had previously discovered that animal Neu5Gc can be absorbed into human tissues. In this study, they hypothesized that eating red meat could lead to inflammation if the body's immune system is constantly generating antibodies against consumed animal Neu5Gc, a foreign molecule. Chronic inflammation is known to promote tumor formation.

To test this hypothesis, the team engineered mice to mimic humans in that they lacked their own Neu5Gc and produced antibodies against it. When these mice were fed Neu5Gc, they developed systemic inflammation. Spontaneous tumor formation increased fivefold and Neu5Gc accumulated in the tumors.

"The final proof in humans will be much harder to come by," Varki said. "But on a more general note, this work may also help explain potential connections of red meat consumption to other diseases exacerbated by , such as atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes.

"Of course, moderate amounts of can be a source of good nutrition for young people. We hope that our work will eventually lead the way to practical solutions for this catch-22."


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More information: A red meat-derived glycan promotes inflammation and cancer progression, PNAS, www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1417508112
Provided by University of California - San Diego
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Dec 30, 2014
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Dec 30, 2014
Very important discovery that will get us a step further in the final eradication of cancer in mice!

Mice should be thought from their youth that red meat is not healthy for them, they should stick the diet they evolved for, namely grain and the occasional insect.

The mice population should be happy!

Dec 31, 2014
Very important discovery that will get us a step further in the final eradication of cancer in mice!

Mice should be thought from their youth that red meat is not healthy for them, they should stick the diet they evolved for, namely grain and the occasional insect.

The mice population should be happy!

The fine article describes how the lab mice used therein had to be engineered to be susceptible - unlike humans, garden variety mice are immune. Perhaps the reduced blood flow in your atherosclerosis encumbered cerebral arteries prevented you from comprehending this.

It's worth noting atherosclerosis is also thought to be caused by chronic inflammation. Neu5Gc -> inflammation -> atherosclerosis?

Jan 01, 2015
Its the same thing with "drug addiction" and "cancer." Wild types are never prone to either of those conditions to any large extent. People just don't want to believe that a large fraction of their "condition" is intrinsic.

Oh, if Neu5Gc is up regulating COX-2 and that is where the inflammation comes from....CBDA/hemp oil will probably ameliorate it


The fine article describes how the lab mice used therein had to be engineered to be susceptible - unlike humans, garden variety mice are immune. Perhaps the reduced blood flow in your atherosclerosis encumbered cerebral arteries prevented you from comprehending this.

It's worth noting atherosclerosis is also thought to be caused by chronic inflammation. Neu5Gc -> inflammation -> atherosclerosis?

Jan 01, 2015
Galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose is also not found in humans and apes, but is found in other mammals, so perhaps this sugar can also cause inflammation.

Jan 02, 2015
Careful, the beef industry's lawyers are watching. Criticism of Food, Inc. is prohibited.

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