Flies the key to studying the causes of dementia

May 19, 2017
Nerve cells in normal/ healthy fly brains and in fly brains expressing the two human Tau isoforms. Credit: Dr Torsten Bossing, University of Plymouth

A research team from the University of Plymouth, University of Southampton and the Alexander Fleming Biomedical Sciences Research Center, Vari, Greece, have studied two structurally-similar proteins in the adult brain and have found that they play distinct roles in the development of dementia.

Their study is published in the prestigious journal Neurobiology of Disease.

The understanding and knowledge gained from this study could lead to effective therapies for dementia and other .

Tau proteins stabilise microtubules in the brain and nervous system. Microtubules help form the structure of cells and other functions, such as providing the rail tracks for transport between cells.

In the brain of , the abnormal clumping of Tau proteins have long been linked to changes in nerve cell activation and ultimately cell death. Two structurally different forms of Tau exist. The research team expressed these two forms of human Tau in of the Drosophila (fruit fly) brain, examining their effects on nerve cell survival and activation, fly movement and memory formation.

The results show that these two proteins differ in terms of biology and pathological potential. One leads to poor communication between nerves associated with movement. The other leads to greater neurodegeneration and impairments in learning and memory.

This is important because defects in the proteins have a bearing on neurodegenerative diseases such as dementia. Designing drugs which target each form specifically should help to improve specific symptoms.

Involved in the study from the University of Plymouth is Dr Torsten Bossing. He commented: "With each new discovery like this we move one step closer to finding effective drug treatments for debilitating neurodegenerative diseases. This is an important study carried out using nerve from fruit flies and it has the potential over the coming years to be developed through more testing and clinical trials. We firmly believe that the answer to the question of how we treat conditions such as dementia lies at this cellular level."

Explore further: Scientists discover two repurposed drugs that arrest neurodegeneration in mice

More information: Megan A. Sealey et al, Distinct phenotypes of three-repeat and four-repeat human tau in a transgenic model of tauopathy, Neurobiology of Disease (2017). DOI: 10.1016/j.nbd.2017.05.003

Related Stories

Recommended for you

Researchers identify brain network organization changes

May 25, 2017

As children age into adolescence and on into young adulthood, they show dramatic improvements in their ability to control impulses, stay organized, and make decisions. Those executive functions of the brain are key factors ...

Fathers' brains respond differently to daughters than sons

May 25, 2017

Fathers with toddler daughters are more attentive and responsive to those daughters' needs than fathers with toddler sons are to the needs of those sons, according to brain scans and recordings of the parents' daily interactions ...

Scientists demonstrate the existence of 'social neurons'

May 25, 2017

The existence of new "social" neurons has just been demonstrated by scientists from the Institut de neurosciences des systèmes (Aix-Marseille University / INSERM), the Laboratoire de psychologie sociale et cognitive (Université ...

How fear can develop out of others' traumas

May 25, 2017

What happens in the brain when we see other people experiencing a trauma or being subjected to pain? Well, the same regions that are involved when we feel pain ourselves are also activated when we observe other people who ...

Babies' slow brain waves could predict problems

May 25, 2017

The brain waves of healthy newborns – which appear more abnormal than those of severe stroke victims – could be used to accurately predict which babies will have neurodevelopmental disorders.

0 comments

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.