Study provides insights on immune cells involved in kidney disease

December 7, 2017, American Society of Nephrology

Researchers have uncovered new information on cells involved in the body's immune response following kidney injury. The findings, which appear in an upcoming issue of the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology (JASN), may lead to new strategies to help protect individuals' kidney health.

Dendritic cells are a type of immune cell thought to form a barrier around organs to help defend against the invasion of pathogens. Because kidney diseases have inflammation and as a common underlying mechanism, a team led by Bernd Zinselmeyer, PhD, Sebastian Brähler, MD (Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis), and Andrey Shaw, MD (now at Genentech) examined the function of dendritic cells and their location in the kidney.

Using new research tools, including state of the art imaging methods, the investigators discovered that the cells that form a barrier around kidneys are actually not dendritic cells, but rather other called macrophages. Dendritic cells are mainly clustered around blood vessels and are recruited into the tissue during injury.

"We found that the role of dendritic cells in kidney inflammation is more complex than previously thought with different types of dendritic cells communicating with each other to control the magnitude of the ," explained Dr. Dr. Brähler. "This work suggests that we need to go back and reexamine some of our previous ideas about how the kidney reacts to injury and how it keeps the immune system from spinning out of control."

After injury to the kidney, dendritic cells appeared to migrate away from the blood vessels to the area of injury. Removal of one of the types of (cDC2) inhibited the immune response to injury while the absence of another type (cDC1) resulted in a heightened response. "A molecular analysis of what the cells were doing, suggested that the cDC1 cell functions to control the function of the cDC2 cell, showing that these 2 cells must work together to control the immune response," said Dr. Zinselmeyer.

The researchers noted that a better understanding of distinct immune cell subsets and their function in kidney inflammation and repair is likely to help generate new strategies that will improve the understanding and treatment of disease.

Explore further: Studies in renal hypertension find important immune system differences between sexes

More information: "Opposing Roles of Dendritic Cell Subsets in Experimental GN," Journal of the American Society of Nephrology (2017). DOI: 10.1681/ASN.2017030270

Related Stories

Studies in renal hypertension find important immune system differences between sexes

October 27, 2017
Women account for half of all cases of high blood pressure (hypertension) in the U.S., yet the majority of hypertension research focuses on men. A review of more than 80 studies highlights sex differences in hypertension-related ...

New types of blood cells discovered

April 21, 2017
Scientists have identified new classes of cells in the human immune system.

Salt, inflammation and hypertension

November 14, 2017
Although dietary salt intake positively correlates with blood pressure, the mechanisms linking salt to hypertension are not well understood.

Not such a 'simple' sugar—glucose may help fight cancer and inflammatory disease

May 30, 2017
Glucose - commonly referred to as a 'simple' sugar - may actually be crucial in the fight against cancer and inflammatory disease as scientists have just discovered a new role in which it stimulates cells that work on the ...

Battle hymns and lullabies: Scientist sheds light on the T cell orchestra

October 27, 2016
In research published in the prestigious journal Immunity, a Saint Louis University researcher reports new findings that help understand how the immune system's dendritic cells direct other immune cells called T lymphocytes ...

Modified immune cells seek and destroy melanoma

June 24, 2013
In this issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation, researchers led by Scott Pruitt at Duke University and Merck Research Laboratories report on a human clinical trial in which modified dendritic cells, a component of ...

Recommended for you

Overuse of antibiotics not what the doctor ordered

July 19, 2018
With increased use of antibiotics worldwide linked to growing antibiotic resistance, a world-first study co-authored by a QUT researcher has highlighted the growing impact of non-prescription supply of antibiotics in community ...

New guidelines to diagnose, manage rare endocrine disorders

July 19, 2018
International guidelines have been published for the first time to help doctors around the globe diagnose and manage patients with a very rare set of endocrine diseases known as pseudohypoparathyroidism and its related disorders, ...

Alcohol-related cirrhosis deaths skyrocket in young adults

July 18, 2018
Deaths from cirrhosis rose in all but one state between 1999-2016, with increases seen most often among young adults, a new study shows.

Childhood abuse linked to greater risk of endometriosis, study finds

July 17, 2018
Endometriosis, a painful condition that affects one in 10 reproductive-age women in the U.S., has been linked to childhood physical and sexual abuse, according to findings published today in the journal Human Reproduction.

Hidden blood in feces may signal deadly conditions

July 17, 2018
(HealthDay)—Even if it's not visible to the naked eye, blood in the stool can be serious—a sign of a potentially fatal disease other than colon cancer, new research suggests.

Why men might recover from flu faster than women

July 17, 2018
Men may recover more quickly from influenza infections because they produce more of a key lung-healing protein, a study from scientists at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health suggests.

0 comments

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.