News tagged with polymerase chain reaction
The notion that police can identify a suspect based on the tiniest drop of blood or trace of tissue has long been a staple of TV dramas, but scientists at Harvard have taken the idea a step further. Using ...
Genetics Jan 07, 2013 | 5 / 5 (7) | 0 |
Approximately one in 20 patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) has chromosomal aberrations targeting the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene. This has considerable implications for treatment because these patients ...
Medical research Dec 12, 2012 | not rated yet | 0 |
A new study conducted by researchers from McGill University, the Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre (RI MUHC), and Sainte-Justine University Hospital Research Centre, Montreal, has put the accuracy ...
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes Feb 27, 2012 | not rated yet | 0 |
A new research study published in the January 2012 edition of The FASEB Journal describes findings that could lead to a non-invasive test that would let expecting mothers know the sex of their baby as early as the first ...
Medical research Jan 03, 2012 | 5 / 5 (1) | 0 |
Researchers in the United States have shown, for the first time, that it is possible to screen cancer patients for a broad range of cancer-causing genetic mutations as part of normal clinical practice. By identifying patients' ...
Cancer Nov 09, 2011 | not rated yet | 0 |
UBC researchers have developed a DNA measurement platform that sets dramatic new performance standards in the sensitivity and accuracy of sample screening.
Medical research Jul 03, 2011 | 4.7 / 5 (3) | 0 |
A distinctly new type of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) that is not detected by traditional genetic screening methods has been discovered in patients in Irish hospitals according to research to be pub ...
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes Jun 02, 2011 | not rated yet | 0 |
New research shows that polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for Borrelia burgdorferi DNAthe spirochetal bacteria transmitted by deer ticksin joint fluid may confirm the diagnosis of Lyme arthritis, but is ...
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes May 17, 2011 | not rated yet | 0 |
Testing patients with just three risk factors upon hospital admission has potential to identify nearly three out of four asymptomatic carriers of C. difficile, according to a new study published in the May issue of the Am ...
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes Apr 30, 2013 | 5 / 5 (1) | 0
Over 40,000 people die each year in the United States from influenza-related diseases. In patients whose immune systems are compromised, antiviral therapy may be life-saving, but it needs to be initiated quickly. It is therefore ...
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes Apr 17, 2013 | not rated yet | 0
New study published in Reproductive Biomedicine Online shows that fluid-filled cavity in 5-day old human blastocysts may contain DNA from the embryo, allowing diagnosis of genetic disease without a biopsy
Medical research Apr 02, 2013 | not rated yet | 0
(HealthDay)—The microbiome of breast milk is influenced by many factors, including maternal weight and how the baby was delivered, according to research published in the American Journal of Clinical Nu ...
Health Jan 28, 2013 | not rated yet | 0
(HealthDay)—The spirochete, Borrelia miyamotoi, may be an underrecognized cause of meningoencephalitis, according to a case study published in the Jan. 17 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes Jan 17, 2013 | not rated yet | 0
Researchers from East Carolina University used a new technique of genotyping to identify the source of a hematology clinic outbreak of Mycobacterium mucogenicum, a gram-positive, acid-fast bacteria found in tap water. This i ...
Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes Oct 05, 2012 | not rated yet | 0
(HealthDay) -- Shortened telomere length (TL) is associated with risks for dementia and mortality in a population of older adults, according to a study published online July 23 in the Archives of Neurology.
Neuroscience Jul 25, 2012 | not rated yet | 0
Polymerase chain reaction
In molecular biology, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique to amplify a single or few copies of a piece of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating millions or more copies of a particular DNA sequence. The method relies on thermal cycling, consisting of cycles of repeated heating and cooling of the reaction for DNA melting and enzymatic replication of the DNA. Primers (short DNA fragments) containing sequences complementary to the target region along with a DNA polymerase (after which the method is named) are key components to enable selective and repeated amplification. As PCR progresses, the DNA generated is itself used as a template for replication, setting in motion a chain reaction in which the DNA template is exponentially amplified. PCR can be extensively modified to perform a wide array of genetic manipulations.
Almost all PCR applications employ a heat-stable DNA polymerase, such as Taq polymerase, an enzyme originally isolated from the bacterium Thermus aquaticus. This DNA polymerase enzymatically assembles a new DNA strand from DNA building blocks, the nucleotides, by using single-stranded DNA as a template and DNA oligonucleotides (also called DNA primers), which are required for initiation of DNA synthesis. The vast majority of PCR methods use thermal cycling, i.e., alternately heating and cooling the PCR sample to a defined series of temperature steps. These thermal cycling steps are necessary to physically separate the strands (at high temperatures) in a DNA double helix (DNA melting) used as the template during DNA synthesis (at lower temperatures) by the DNA polymerase to selectively amplify the target DNA. The selectivity of PCR results from the use of primers that are complementary to the DNA region targeted for amplification under specific thermal cycling conditions.
Developed in 1984 by Kary Mullis, PCR is now a common and often indispensable technique used in medical and biological research labs for a variety of applications. These include DNA cloning for sequencing, DNA-based phylogeny, or functional analysis of genes; the diagnosis of hereditary diseases; the identification of genetic fingerprints (used in forensic sciences and paternity testing); and the detection and diagnosis of infectious diseases. In 1993 Mullis was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on PCR.
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