How sleep helps brain learn motor task

August 20, 2013
An MRI shows the location (in yellow) of the Supplementary Motor Area, an area of the brain found to be involved in consolidating learning of sequential finger tapping motor tasks. Credit: Yuka Sasaki/Brown University

You take your piano lesson, you go to sleep and when you wake up your fingers are better able to play that beautiful sequence of notes. How does sleep make that difference? A new study helps to explain what happens in your brain during those fateful, restful hours when motor learning takes hold.

"The mechanisms of memory consolidations regarding learning were still uncertain until now," said Masako Tamaki, a postdoctoral researcher at Brown University and lead author of the study that appears Aug. 21 in the Journal of Neuroscience. "We were trying to figure out which part of the brain is doing what during sleep, independent of what goes on during . We were trying to figure out the specific role of sleep."

In part because it employed three different kinds of brain scans, the research is the first to precisely quantify changes among certain brainwaves and the exact location of that changed brain activity in subjects as they slept after learning a sequential finger-tapping task. The task was a sequence of key punches that is cognitively akin to typing or playing the piano.

Specifically, the results of complex experiments performed at Massachusetts General Hospital and then analyzed at Brown, show that the improved speed and accuracy volunteers showed on the task after a few hours sleep was significantly associated with changes in fast-sigma and delta brainwave in their (SMA), a region on the top-middle of the brain. These specific brainwave changes in the SMA occurred during a particular phase of sleep known as "slow-wave" sleep.

Scientists have shown that sleep improves many kinds of learning, including the kind of sequential finger-tapping addressed in the study, but they haven't been sure about why or how. It's an intensive activity for the brain to consolidate learning and so the brain may benefit from sleep perhaps because more energy is available or because distractions and new inputs are fewer, said study corresponding author Yuka Sasaki, a research associate professor in Brown's Department of Cognitive, Linguistic & Psychological Sciences.

"Sleep is not just a waste of time," Sasaki said.

The extent of reorganization that the brain accomplishes during sleep is suggested by the distinct roles the two brainwave oscillations appear to play. The authors wrote that the delta oscillations appeared to govern the changes in the SMA's connectivity with other areas of the cortex, while the fast-sigma oscillations appeared to pertain to changes within the SMA itself.

Meticulous measurements

Possible roles for fast-sigma and delta and for the SMA had suggestive support at in the literature before this study, but no one had obtained much proof in part because doing so requires a complex experimental protocol.

To make their findings Sasaki, Tamaki and their team asked each of their 15 subjects to volunteer for the motor learning experiments. For the first three nights nine subjects simply slept at whatever ther preferred bedtime was while their brains were scanned both with magnetoencephalography (MEG), which measures the oscillations with precise timing, and polysomnography, which keeps track of sleep phase. By this time the researchers had good baseline measurements of their and subjects had become accustomed to sleeping in the lab.

On day 4 the subjects learned the finger-tapping task on their non-dominant hand (to purposely make it harder to learn). The subjects were then allowed to go to sleep for three hours and were again scanned with PSG and MEG. Then the researchers woke them up. An hour later they asked the subjects to perform the tapping task. As a control, six other subjects remained did not sleep after learning the task, but were also asked to perform it four hours after being trained. Those who slept did the task faster and more accurately that those who did not.

On day 5, the researchers scanned each volunteer with an magnetic resonance imaging machine, which maps brain anatomy, so that they could later see where the MEG oscillations they had observed were located in each subject's brain.

In all, the experimenters tracked 5 different oscillation frequencies in eight brain regions (four distinct regions on each of the brain's two sides). Sasaki said she expected the most significant activity to take place in the "M1" brain region which governs motor control, but instead the significant changes occurred in the SMA on the opposite side of the trained hand.

What was especially important about the delta and fast-sigma oscillations was that they fit two key criteria with statistical significance: they changed substantially after substantially after subjects were trained in the task and the strength of that change correlated with the degree of the subject's performance improvement on the task.

After performing the experiments the team of Sasaki, Tamaki and co-author Takeo Watanabe moved from MGH to Brown where they have set up a new sleep lab. They have since begun a project to further study how the brain consolidates learning. In this case they're looking at visual learning tasks.

"Will we see similar effects?" Sasaki asked. "Would it be with similar frequency bands and a similar organization of neighboring areas?"

To find out, some volunteers will just have to on it.

Explore further: Sleep consolidates memories for competing tasks, researchers show

Related Stories

Sleep consolidates memories for competing tasks, researchers show

March 20, 2013
Sleep plays an important role in the brain's ability to consolidate learning when two new potentially competing tasks are learned in the same day, research at the University of Chicago demonstrates.

Musicians who learn a new melody demonstrate enhanced skill after a night's sleep

April 11, 2013
(Medical Xpress)—A new study that examined how the brain learns and retains motor skills provides insight into musical skill.

No link between sleep, fatigue level: research

August 1, 2013
New Swedish research has shown that there is little or no relation between how much sleep people get at night and how fatigued they feel, the head researcher said Thursday.

Sound stimulation during sleep can enhance memory

April 11, 2013
Slow oscillations in brain activity, which occur during so-called slow-wave sleep, are critical for retaining memories. Researchers reporting online April 11 in the Cell Press journal Neuron have found that playing sounds ...

Speedier scans reveal new distinctions in resting and active brain

August 1, 2013
A boost in the speed of brain scans is unveiling new insights into how brain regions work with each other in cooperative groups called networks.

Recommended for you

Presurgical imaging may predict whether epilepsy surgery will work

December 11, 2017
Surgery to remove a part of the brain to give relief to patients with epilepsy doesn't always result in complete seizure relief, but statisticians at Rice University have developed a method for integrating neuroimaging scans ...

Selecting sounds: How the brain knows what to listen to

December 11, 2017
How is it that we are able—without any noticeable effort—to listen to a friend talk in a crowded café or follow the melody of a violin within an orchestra?

Updated brain cell map connects various brain diseases to specific cell types

December 11, 2017
Researchers have developed new single-cell sequencing methods that could be used to map the cell origins of various brain disorders, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

Scientists discover new way to help nerve regeneration in spinal cord injury

December 11, 2017
There is currently no cure for spinal cord injury or treatment to help nerve regeneration so therapies offering intervention are limited. People with severe spinal cord injuries can remain paralysed for life and this is often ...

How a seahorse-shaped brain structure may help us recognize others

December 8, 2017
How do we recognize others? How do we know friend from foe, threat from reward? How does the brain compute the multitude of cues telling us that Susan is not Erica even though they look alike? The complexity of social interactions—human ...

Brain networks that help babies learn to walk ID'd

December 8, 2017
Scientists have identified brain networks involved in a baby's learning to walk—a discovery that eventually may help predict whether infants are at risk for autism.

2 comments

Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

210
1 / 5 (2) Aug 20, 2013
THE human brain is such a marvelous creation. I've seen the active CAT scan of a human brain and all those different metabolic and electrical functions that the researches demonstrated to me. Yet, none of them could tell me where the human mind resides! They showed me ASTOUNDING case studies of animals and people who had lost parts of their brains and still lived and functioned. They showed the rates of degradation of human sentience as more and more of the brain is lost due to damage or disease. I even saw a cross sectional scan and micrograph of the potent brain blood barrier - IT, is not what it sounds like! The mind, and what gives thought LIFE, and how do we 'make' new ideas even in our sleep. The brain is like an enormous onion with all its functions and layers of function. I even asked, " Does the brain make its own stem cells?" I forgot the answer, so I guess my brain has made too many new ones for the old ones to tell them what the dead ones would say, haha!
word-to-ya-muthas
imigor
3 / 5 (1) Aug 21, 2013
Wow!"Sleep is not just a waste of time," Sasaki said.
How amazing words it is!!
With the fast-sigma and delta brainwave oscillations,we got lots of benefit for our brain.
But,how the the delta oscillations govern brain's SMA,and connect our brain's cortex??
If we could contral the details,humanity would improve more and more quickly!

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.